Information for Authors
To check on your active submission, please visit BME Frontiers’ manuscript submissions site
For general guidance on using the manuscript submission system, please read the tutorials for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. For questions on specific functionality, explore the Editorial Manager video library.
Biomedical Engineering (BME) Frontiers is committed to thorough and efficient evaluation of submitted manuscripts. All submissions to BME Frontiers are assessed by our editorial office for language, accuracy, ethics and whether it falls within journal scope. BME Frontiers establishes rigor early in the review process, and warrants rejections only come from individuals who have read the manuscript.
Categories of Manuscripts
The journal BME Frontiers accepts submissions for original research articles, reviews, rapid reports and perspectives. Prior to submission, each author should review and fulfill the submission requirements below and as outlined in the Editorial Policies page.
Research articles should present novel research study of outstanding significance. Submissions must include an abstract of up to 250 words, an introduction, and sections with brief informative subheadings. Authors may include up to 6 figures and/or 3 tables and about 20 to 40 references. Total research article length should be under 5000 words. Supplementary materials should be limited to information that is not essential for the general understanding of the research presented in the main text and can include data sets, figures, tables, videos, or audio files. For guidance on how to best format your article, please refer to the Manuscript template.
Reviews should describe and synthesize recent developments of significance in biomedical engineering and highlight future directions. Reviews must include an abstract, an introduction that outlines the main theme, brief subheadings, and an outline of important unresolved questions. Authors may include up to 10 figures and/or 6 tables and up to 120 references. Reviews should be no longer than 8000 words, although longer manuscripts will be considered when warranted. Most reviews are currently solicited by the editors, but author-initiated submissions are also welcome but require preapproval by the editorial office.
Rapid reports should report ground-breaking developments or discoveries in the field of biomedical engineering. Rapid reports should have fewer than 1000 words, no abstract, a minimal number of references (no more than 5), and 2 figures or tables. Rapid reports will be evaluated as quickly as possible by the deputy editors. BME Frontiers encourages junior scientists to contribute their promising works to rapid reports.
Perspectives (up to 1000 words plus 1 figure) highlight recent exciting research, but do not primarily discuss the author’s own work. They may provide context for the findings within a field or explain potential interdisciplinary importance. As these are meant to express a personal viewpoint, with rare exceptions, perspectives should have no more than 2 authors.
Preparation of Manuscripts
English Language Editing Services
Interested in pre-submission English language assistance? The Science Partner Journals publishing team has evaluated the work of the companies listed on the SPJ Author Services page and found their services to be effective for editing scientific English language in manuscripts prior to submission.
Experimental Design and Statistics Guidelines
Study Design Guidelines
In the first section of the Materials and Methods, we encourage authors to have first subtitle of “Experimental and Technical Design,” which includes a diagram or flowchart to show the entire experimental design and illustrates the most significant elements: materials, treatments, measurements, data collection, methods of data analysis. This will facilitate the editors, reviewers and readers to understand and follow the whole concept, design, and results.
Statistical Analysis Guidelines
Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results.
Authors are encouraged to follow published standard reporting guidelines for the study discipline. Many of these guidelines can be found at the EQUATOR website.
Figure Preparation Guidelines
Creating Your Figures
It is best to create your figures as vector-based files such as those produced by Adobe Illustrator. Vector-based files will give us maximum flexibility for sizing your figures properly without losing resolution. Although we do not need the highest-resolution files for the initial submission, you will need to have these high-resolution files of your figures on hand so that they can be submitted with your revised manuscript for final publication. These figure files can be saved at a lower resolution to minimize the file size at initial submission. Each figure or image must be in a separate editable file format. Images may be in Photoshop, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, PNG, BMP and vector art files must be in PS, EPS, FIG, AI, Visio, WMF, EMF, Word, Excel, PowerPoint, OPJ, CDR, or PDF.
Figure Layout and Scaling
In laying out information in a figure, the objective is to maximize the space given to presentation of the data. Avoid wasted white space and clutter.
Please follow these guidelines for your figures:
- The figure’s title should be at the beginning of the figure legend, not within the figure itself.
- Include the figure’s identifying number (e.g., “Figure 1”) on the same manuscript page that includes the figure.
- Keys to symbols, if needed, should be kept as simple as possible. Details can be put into the figure legend.
- Use solid symbols for plotting data if possible (unless data overlap or there are multiple symbols). For legibility when figures are reduced, symbol sizes should be a minimum of 6 points and line widths should be a minimum of 0.5 points.
- Panels should be set close to each other and common axis labels should not be repeated.
- Scales or axes should not extend beyond the range of the data plotted. All microscopic images should include scale bars, with their values shown either with the bar or in the figure legend. Do not use minor tick marks in scales or grid lines. Avoid using y-axis labels on the right that repeat those on the left.
Color-mix and Contrast Considerations
- Avoid using red and green together. Color-blind individuals will not be able to read the figure.
- Do not use colors that are close to each other in hue to identify different parts of a figure.
- Avoid using grayscale.
- Use white type and scale bars over darker areas of images.
Typefaces and Labels
Please observe the following guidelines for labels on graphs and figures:
- Use a serif font whenever possible.
- Simple solid or open symbols reduce well.
- Label graphs on the ordinate and abscissa with the parameter or variable being measured, the units of measure in parentheses and the scale. Scales with large or small numbers should be presented as powers of 10. (When an individual value must be presented as an exponential, use correct form: 6 × 10–3, not 6e-03.)
- Avoid the use of light lines and screen shading. Instead, use black-and-white, hatched, and cross-hatched designs for emphasis.
- Capitalize the first letter in a label only, not every word (and proper nouns, of course).
- Units should be included in parentheses. Use SI notation. If there is room, write out variables—e.g., Pressure (MPa), Temperature (K).
- Variables are always set in italics or as plain Greek letters (e.g., P, T, µ). Vectors should be set as roman boldface (rather than as italics with arrows above).
- Type on top of color in a color figure should be in boldface. Avoid using color type.
- When figures are assembled from multiple gels or micrographs, use a line or space to indicate the border between two original images.
- Use leading zeros on all decimals—e.g., 0.3, 0.55—and only report significant digits.
- Use small letters for part labels in multipart figures enclosed in brackets, (a), (b), (c), etc.
- Avoid subpart labels within a figure part; instead, maintain the established sequence of part labels, using small or lower-case letters. Use numbers (1, 2, 3) only to represent a time sequence of images.
- When reproducing images that include labels with illegible computer-generated type (e.g., units for scale bars), omit such labels and present the information in the legend instead.
Restrictions on Figure Modification
- BME Frontiers does not allow certain electronic enhancements or manipulations of micrographs, gels or other digital images.
- Figures assembled from multiple photographs or images must indicate the separate parts with lines between them.
- Linear adjustment of contrast, brightness or color must be applied to an entire image or plate equally. Nonlinear adjustments must be specified in the figure legend.
- Selective enhancement or alteration of one part of an image is not acceptable.
- In addition, BME Frontiers may ask authors of papers returned for revision to provide additional documentation of their primary data.
Acceptable File Formats
We prefer that the initial submission be uploaded to the electronic submission site as a Word file (PDFs acceptable if LaTeX source files are used) that contains all components of the paper. Create a single file consisting of the text, references, figures and their legends, tables and their legends. Supplementary Materials that cannot be incorporated into a Word file must be sent to the Editorial Office separately.
Alternatively, you may upload your manuscript as one file that contains all of the textual material plus separate figure files (one for each figure) and separate Supplementary Material files. The text file should be a Word .docx (preferred) or .doc file (as stated before, PDFs are acceptable in the case of LaTeX source files).
Please use zipped files when necessary to upload unusually large supplementary files.
See the guidelines above for creating and formatting your original figures. For initial submission, the figure files should be incorporated into the main text file at their proper places if at all possible. All figures should be cited in the manuscript in consecutive order. Figures should be supplied in either vector art formats (Illustrator, EPS, WMF, FreeHand, CorelDraw, PowerPoint, Excel, etc.) or bitmap formats (Photoshop, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, etc.). Bitmap images should be of 300 dpi resolution at least unless the resolution is intentionally set to a lower level for scientific reasons. If a bitmap image has labels, the image and labels should be embedded in separate layers.
If a single file is not possible, figures should be uploaded as separate PDFs, although the following formats are also acceptable: JPEG, PNG, AI, PSD, TIFF, PICT, and GIF.
Tables should be cited consecutively in the text. Every table must have a descriptive title and if numerical measurements are given, the units should be included in the column heading. Vertical rules should not be used.
Text and figures. Include supporting text (including supplementary materials and methods, tables, and figures) at the end of the main manuscript file, in a separate section titled Supplementary Materials, if this can be easily done. Alternatively, Supplementary Materials can be included as a separate .docx file that can be uploaded. In that case, use one of the file types specified above (.doc or .docx preferred).
Video files. Acceptable formats for videos are MP4, AVI, MOV, MPEG, and WMV. Keep videos short and the display window small to minimize the file size of the video. Supply caption information with the videos. Edit longer sequences into several small pieces with captions specific to each video sequence.
Audio files. Please contact the editors regarding submission of such file types.
Submission of Manuscripts
All manuscripts should be prepared according to the guidelines above and submitted via Editorial Manager by following the link to Submit Manuscript. If the choice to “Submit a new manuscript to BME Frontiers” does not appear on the new window automatically, choose the option to do so from the list or visit http://www.editorialmanager.com/bmef/default.aspx.
In preparation for submitting a research manuscript to BME Frontiers, authors should review the Template for BME Frontiers Article Submission, which will facilitate accurate preparation and processing. The body text of a manuscript for a research article must include the sections in the list below in the same order listed. More detail on each of these sections is included in the Template for BME Frontiers Article Submission.
- Authors and their affiliations
- Materials and Methods
- Supplementary Materials
The following items are required for submission:
- A cover letter, containing the following:
- The title of the paper and a one-sentence summary.
- Names of colleagues who have reviewed the paper.
- A statement that none of the material has been published or is under consideration elsewhere, including online, and that all authors listed on the paper have reviewed and agree to the Submission Terms and Conditions.
- Names, telephone numbers, email addresses and ORCID IDs for all authors, including selection of one to be corresponding author.
- Any suggested cover illustrations.
- Names, affiliations and email addresses of potential referees.
- Copies of any paper by you or your co-authors that is in press or under consideration elsewhere that relates to the work submitted to BME Frontiers’ should be emailed to the editorial office.
During manuscript submission, the submitting author will be asked to confirm their understanding of or compliance with BME Frontiers’ policies on:
- Prior publication
- Informed consent
- Animal care and use
- Related papers
- Citation to personal communications and unpublished data
- Data deposition and availability
- License selection
- Materials sharing
- Third-party image reuse
- Publication of accepted version
Authors may submit their references in any style. If accepted, BME Frontiers will reformat the references in Chicago style. Authors are responsible for ensuring that the information in each reference is complete and accurate.
List all authors by first initial(s) and last name. Do not use op. cit., ibid., 3-m dashes, en dashes, or et al. (in place of the complete list of authors’ names).
For journals that do not use page number ranges use the article number.
All references should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation. Citations of references in the text should be identified using numbers in square brackets e.g., “as discussed by Liu ”; “as discussed elsewhere [9, 10]”. All references should be cited within the text and uncited references will be removed.
DOIs, if available, should be included for each reference.
Each submission to BME Frontiers must be accompanied by Licenses to Publish and Conflict of Interest forms completed by each author before the review process can be completed. Image Permission forms are required as needed for re-use of any third-party created figure, image, or other asset; permission is only needed if the copyright holder is not an author on the paper.
These forms need to be completed prior to manuscript acceptance. They do not need to be completed prior to submission.
Documents may be printed out, signed, and scanned or signed using an electronic signature. Once completed, please upload the files into Editorial Manager alongside your manuscript files.