Terahertz Metamaterials for Free-Space and on-Chip Applications: From Active Metadevices to Topological Photonic CrystalsRead the full article
The open access journal Advanced Devices & Instrumentation, published in association with BIACD, is a forum to promote breakthroughs and application advances at all levels of electronics and photonics.
Advanced Devices & Instrumentation’s editorial board is led by Wei Wang (China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation) and Daping Chu (University of Cambridge) and is comprised of experts who have made significant and well recognized contributions to the field.
Advanced Devices & Instrumentation presents its first special issue: Metasurface-Based Devices
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Resonant Metasurfaces for Spectroscopic Detection: Physics and Biomedical Applications
Metasurfaces are ultrathin metamaterials consisting of subwavelength scatterers (e.g., meta-atoms) arranged in a specific sequence that generates low radiation losses and fantastic optical resonances. According to the electromagnetic response properties, metasurfaces can be divided into two categories: metallic nanostructures based on the response of plasmonic excitations (e.g., noble metals and graphene) and all-dielectric nanostructures based on near-field scattering (e.g., Mie scattering). Metasurfaces supporting various optical modes possess optical localization and electromagnetic field enhancement capabilities on the subwavelength scale, making them a promising platform for label-free detection in biomedical sensing. Metasurface-based optical sensors offer several outstanding advantages over conventional spectroscopic detection solutions, such as planar structures, low loss, miniaturization, and integration. Recently, novel sensing and even imaging tools based on metasurfaces have widely loomed and been proposed. Given recent advances in the field of metasurface spectroscopic detection, this review briefly summarizes the main resonance mechanisms of metasurfaces and the notable achievements, including refractive index sensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, surface-enhanced infrared absorption, and chiral sensing in the ultraviolet to terahertz wavelengths. Ultimately, we draw a summary of the current challenges of metasurface spectroscopic detection and look forward to future directions for improving these techniques. As the subject is broad and growing, our review will not be comprehensive. Nevertheless, we will endeavor to describe the main research in this area and assess some of the relevant literature.
The Dawn of Metadevices: From Contemporary Designs to Exotic Applications
In recent years, metamaterials and metasurfaces have prospered in many fields of “science and technology,” covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Metasurface devices constituting of a set arrangement of meta-atoms translate into modern-day miniaturized means to achieve planar, ultrathin, multifunctional electromagnetic (EM) systems. Metasurfaces are ideal candidates to develop next-generation, lightweight, and fabrication-friendly optical components as they impart local and space-variant phase changes on incident EM waves, providing more comprehensive control over EM wavefronts. This attribute has been instrumental in realizing a variety of special beams for high-capacity data transmission and superresolution imaging. Furthermore, from the perspective of efficiency, the below-par performance of previously explored plasmonic-based metasurfaces can be enhanced by employing all-dielectric metasurfaces. All-dielectric metasurfaces with high refractive indices have high resonance quality factors, low cost, and CMOS fabrication compatibility. 2D materials-based metasurface design has succeeded in further reducing the device footprints for better integration in optoelectronic devices. The conventional, time- and computation-intensive EM solvers have largely been assisted by artificial intelligence techniques, resulting in quicker metasurface designing. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art meta-devices employed for wavefront manipulations of optical waves. The design variants and applications of metasurfaces constitute a prolific field for future research to meet existing challenges and make the devices more suitable for real-time applications.
Video Capsule Endoscopy and Ingestible Electronics: Emerging Trends in Sensors, Circuits, Materials, Telemetry, Optics, and Rapid Reading Software
Real-time monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract in a safe and comfortable manner is valuable for the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. Within this realm, our review captures the trends in ingestible capsule systems with a focus on hardware and software technologies used for capsule endoscopy and remote patient monitoring. We introduce the structure and functions of the gastrointestinal tract, and the FDA guidelines for ingestible wireless telemetric medical devices. We survey the advanced features incorporated in ingestible capsule systems, such as microrobotics, closed-loop feedback, physiological sensing, nerve stimulation, sampling and delivery, panoramic imaging with adaptive frame rates, and rapid reading software. Examples of experimental and commercialized capsule systems are presented with descriptions of their sensors, devices, and circuits for gastrointestinal health monitoring. We also show the recent research in biocompatible materials and batteries, edible electronics, and alternative energy sources for ingestible capsule systems. The results from clinical studies are discussed for the assessment of key performance indicators related to the safety and effectiveness of ingestible capsule procedures. Lastly, the present challenges and outlook are summarized with respect to the risks to health, clinical testing and approval process, and technology adoption by patients and clinicians.
A Nonclassical Sagnac Interferometer Using Coherence de Broglie Waves
A Sagnac interferometer has been a powerful tool for gyroscope, spectroscopy, and navigation based on the Sagnac effects between counterpropagating twin fields in a closed loop, whose difference phase is caused by Einstein’s special relativity. Here, a nonclassical version of a Sagnac interferometer is presented using completely different physics of coherence de Broglie waves (CBW) in a cavity, where CBW is a nonclassical feature overcoming the standard quantum limit governed by classical physics.
Slope-Assisted Brillouin-Based Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensing Techniques
Brillouin-based fiber-optic sensing has been regarded as a powerful distributed measurement tool for monitoring the conditions of modern large civil and geotechnical structures, since it provides continuous environmental information (e.g., temperature and strain) along the whole fiber used for sensing applications. In the past few decades, great research efforts were devoted to improve its performance in terms of measurement range, spatial resolution, measurement speed, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness, of which the slope-assisted measurement scheme, achieved by exploiting the linear slope of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS), have paved the way for dynamic distributed fiber-optic sensing. In this article, slope-assisted Brillouin-based distributed fiber-optic sensing techniques demonstrated in the past few years will be reviewed, including the slope-assisted Brillouin optical time-domain analysis/reflectometry (SA-BOTDA/SA-BOTDR), the slope-assisted Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) sensor, and the slope-assisted Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis/reflectometry (SA-BOCDA/SA-BOCDR). Avenues for future research and development of slope-assisted Brillouin-based fiber-optic sensors are also prospected.
Advanced Thermally Drawn Multimaterial Fibers: Structure-Enabled Functionalities
Thermally drawn multimaterial fibers have experienced rapid development in the past two decades owing to the high scalability, uniformity, and material and structure compatibility of the thermal drawing technique. This article reviews various multimaterial fibers based on different functional structures and their applications in disparate fields. We start from the functional structures achieved in optical fibers developed in the early stage of thermally drawn fibers. Subsequently, we introduce both typical functional structures and unique structures created in multimaterial fibers for varying applications. Next, we present the early attempts in breaking the axial symmetric structures of thermally drawn fibers for extended functionalities. Additionally, we summarize the current progress on creating surface structures on thermally drawn fibers. Finally, we provide an outlook for this trending topic towards wearable devices and smart textiles.