Multicontrast Pocket Colposcopy Cervical Cancer Diagnostic Algorithm for Referral Populations

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Journal profile

The open access journal BMEF (BME Frontiers), published in association with SIBET CAS, is a platform for the multidisciplinary community of biomedical engineering, publishing wide-ranging research in the field.

Editorial board

BMEF's editorial board is led by Xingde Li (Johns Hopkins University), Yuguo Tang (Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology), and Guoqi Zhang (Delft University of Technology) and is comprised of leading experts in the field of biomedical engineering.

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Perspective

High-Resolution Multiscale Imaging Enabled by Hybrid Open-Top Light-Sheet Microscopy

Perspective

Multiphoton Microscopes Go Big: Large-Scale In Vivo Imaging of Neural Dynamics

Research Article

Particle-Mediated Histotripsy for the Targeted Treatment of Intraluminal Biofilms in Catheter-Based Medical Devices

Objective. This paper is an initial work towards developing particle-mediated histotripsy (PMH) as a novel method of treating catheter-based medical device (CBMD) intraluminal biofilms. Impact Statement. CBMDs commonly become infected with bacterial biofilms leading to medical device failure, infection, and adverse patient outcomes. Introduction. Histotripsy is a noninvasive focused ultrasound ablation method that was recently proposed as a novel method to remove intraluminal biofilms. Here, we explore the potential of combining histotripsy with acoustically active particles to develop a PMH approach that can noninvasively remove biofilms without the need for high acoustic pressures or real-time image guidance for targeting. Methods. Histotripsy cavitation thresholds in catheters containing either gas-filled microbubbles (MBs) or fluid-filled nanocones (NCs) were determined. The ability of these particles to sustain cavitation over multiple ultrasound pulses was tested after a series of histotripsy exposures. Next, the ability of PMH to generate selective intraluminal cavitation without generating extraluminal cavitation was tested. Finally, the biofilm ablation and bactericidal capabilities of PMH were tested using both MBs and NCs. Results. PMH significantly reduced the histotripsy cavitation threshold, allowing for selective luminal cavitation for both MBs and NCs. Results further showed PMH successfully removed intraluminal biofilms in Tygon catheters. Finally, results from bactericidal experiments showed minimal reduction in bacteria viability. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for PMH to provide a new modality for removing bacterial biofilms from CBMDs and suggest that additional work is warranted to develop histotripsy and PMH for treatment of CBMD intraluminal biofilms.

Research Article

Noninvasive Low-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Mediates Tissue Protection following Ischemic Stroke

Objective and Impact Statement. This study examined the efficacy and safety of pulsed, low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) and determined its ability to provide neuroprotection in a murine permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model. Introduction. Focused ultrasound (FUS) has emerged as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke; however, its nonthrombolytic properties remain ill-defined. Therefore, we examined how LIFU influenced neuroprotection and vascular changes following stroke. Due to the critical role of leptomeningeal anastomoses or pial collateral vessels, in cerebral blood flow restoration and tissue protection following ischemic stroke, we also investigated their growth and remodeling. Methods. Mice were exposed to transcranial LIFU (fundamental frequency: 1.1 MHz, sonication duration: 300 ms, interstimulus interval: 3 s, pulse repetition frequency: 1 kHz, duty cycle per pulse: 50%, and peak negative pressure: -2.0 MPa) for 30 minutes following induction of pMCAO and then evaluated for infarct volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and pial collateral remodeling at 24 hrs post-pMCAO. Results. We found significant neuroprotection in mice exposed to LIFU compared to mock treatment. These findings correlated with a reduced area of IgG deposition in the cerebral cortex, suggesting attenuation of BBB breakdown under LIFU conditions. We also observed increased diameter of CD31-postive microvessels in the ischemic cortex. We observed no significant difference in pial collateral vessel size between FUS and mock treatment at 24 hrs post-pMCAO. Conclusion. Our data suggests that therapeutic use of LIFU may induce protection through microvascular remodeling that is not related to its thrombolytic activity.

Research Article

High-Frequency 3D Photoacoustic Computed Tomography Using an Optical Microring Resonator

3D photoacoustic computed tomography (3D-PACT) has made great advances in volumetric imaging of biological tissues, with high spatial-temporal resolutions and large penetration depth. The development of 3D-PACT requires high-performance acoustic sensors with a small size, large detection bandwidth, and high sensitivity. In this work, we present a new high-frequency 3D-PACT system that uses a microring resonator (MRR) as the acoustic sensor. The MRR sensor has a size of 80 μm in diameter and was fabricated using the nanoimprint lithography technology. Using the MRR sensor, we have developed a transmission-mode 3D-PACT system that has achieved a detection bandwidth of ~23 MHz, an imaging depth of ~8 mm, a lateral resolution of 114 μm, and an axial resolution of 57 μm. We have demonstrated the 3D PACT’s performance on in vitro phantoms, ex vivo mouse brain, and in vivo mouse ear and tadpole. The MRR-based 3D-PACT system can be a promising tool for structural, functional, and molecular imaging of biological tissues at depths.

Research Article

Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastography Using a 2D Row Column Addressing (RCA) Array

Objective. To develop a 3D shear wave elastography (SWE) technique using a 2D row column addressing (RCA) array, with either external vibration or acoustic radiation force (ARF) as the shear wave source. Impact Statement. The proposed method paves the way for clinical translation of 3D SWE based on the 2D RCA, providing a low-cost and high volume rate solution that is compatible with existing clinical systems. Introduction. SWE is an established ultrasound imaging modality that provides a direct and quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness, which is significant for a wide range of clinical applications including cancer and liver fibrosis. SWE requires high frame rate imaging for robust shear wave tracking. Due to the technical challenges associated with high volume rate imaging in 3D, current SWE techniques are typically confined to 2D. Advancing SWE from 2D to 3D is significant because of the heterogeneous nature of tissue, which demands 3D imaging for accurate and comprehensive evaluation. Methods. A 3D SWE method using a RCA array was developed with a volume rate up to 2000 Hz. The performance of the proposed method was systematically evaluated on tissue-mimicking elasticity phantoms and in an in vivo case study. Results. 3D shear wave motion induced by either external vibration or ARF was successfully detected with the proposed method. Robust 3D shear wave speed maps were reconstructed for phantoms and in vivo. Conclusion. The high volume rate 3D imaging provided by the 2D RCA array provides a robust and practical solution for 3D SWE with a clear pathway for future clinical translation.