Multiple cancer diagnosis methods. (a) Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain tumor (from Ref. [2
]). (b) Computed tomography scan of bilateral serous cystadenocarcinomas in a 50-year-old woman with contrast enhancement shows bilateral ovoid tumors (T) with septa and mural nodules (from Ref. [3
]). (c) Basic principle of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: the capture antibody captures the target biomarker then binds to the detection antibody. (d) Separation of the (R) and (S) enantiomers of the cancer biomarker 2HG by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (from Ref. [4
]). (e) Terahertz imaging of a breast tumor (from Ref. [5
]). (f) Terahertz absorption spectra of creatine (red line) and L-Glutamic acid (blue line).