Ultrasound-Mediated Drug Delivery: Sonoporation Mechanisms, Biophysics, and Critical Factors
Single-site sonoporation would disrupt actin cytoskeleton. (a) Confocal images showing F-actin disassembly in a sonoporation episode (green: actin-GFP; red: propidium iodide). (b) For cells with higher tracer uptake, they have a larger actin disassembly time constant (;). (c) Actin disassembly rate is correlated with tracer uptake rate (). (d) Fixed cell images at 2 h after onset of sonoporation, showing F-actin severance and G-actin increase. (e) G:F-actin imbalance in sonoporated cells is similar to Cyto-D drug-induced actin depolymerization (; with respect to sham control), referenced to literature .