BME Frontiers / 2022 / Article / Fig 5

Review Article

Ultrasound-Mediated Drug Delivery: Sonoporation Mechanisms, Biophysics, and Critical Factors

Figure 5

Correlation between sonoporation, IC dose (ICD), and gene transfection in MCF-7 cells. (a) SEM revealed that sonoporation sites are larger at higher ultrasound pressure, longer treatment time, and higher PRF (experiment was conducted with 1 MHz ultrasound). (b) The corresponding ICD is significantly enhanced as the three ultrasound parameters are increased. (c) The size of sonoporation sites is positively correlated with the measured ICD but is negatively correlated with cell viability. (d) Sonoporation-facilitated transfection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) initially shows linear correlation with ICD, but this trend levels out at higher ICD values, referenced to literature [59].