BME Frontiers / 2022 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Ultrasound-Mediated Drug Delivery: Sonoporation Mechanisms, Biophysics, and Critical Factors

Table 1

Major temporal factors affecting sonoporation outcomes.

Impact factorsSonoporation outcomes
CategoryRangeTransfection efficiencyCell viabilityRepairing rate

Total time↑0.1-900 s↑ [59, 125, 135, 137, 147, 149]↓ [59, 125, 137, 149]
Pulse length↑4-1000 μs↑ [125, 137, 146]↓ [125, 137, 146]↓ [146]
Duty cycle↑2%-90%↑[137, 146, 147, 148]↓[137, 146, 147, 148]↓ [146]
PRF↑10-3000 Hz↑ [59, 137]↓ [59, 137]

Note: ↑ and ↓ represent the increase and decreased in corresponding categories.