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The Open Access journal Cyborg and Bionic Systems, published in association with BIT, promotes the knowledge interchange and hybrid system codesign between living beings and robotic systems.
Cyborg and Bionic Systems’ editorial board is led by Toshio Fukuda (Beijing Institute of Technology) and is comprised of experts who have made significant and well recognized contributions to the field.
Submission deadline is September 30th for:
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A Survey on Design, Actuation, Modeling, and Control of Continuum Robot
In this paper, we describe the advances in the design, actuation, modeling, and control field of continuum robots. After decades of pioneering research, many innovative structural design and actuation methods have arisen. Untethered magnetic robots are a good example; its external actuation characteristic allows for miniaturization, and they have gotten a lot of interest from academics. Furthermore, continuum robots with proprioceptive abilities are also studied. In modeling, modeling approaches based on continuum mechanics and geometric shaping hypothesis have made significant progress after years of research. Geometric exact continuum mechanics yields apparent computing efficiency via discrete modeling when combined with numerical analytic methods such that many effective model-based control methods have been realized. In the control, closed-loop and hybrid control methods offer great accuracy and resilience of motion control when combined with sensor feedback information. On the other hand, the advancement of machine learning has made modeling and control of continuum robots easier. The data-driven modeling technique simplifies modeling and improves anti-interference and generalization abilities. This paper discusses the current development and challenges of continuum robots in the above fields and provides prospects for the future.
Experimental Verification on Steering Flight of Honeybee by Electrical Stimulation
The artificial locomotion control strategy is the fundamental technique to ensure the accomplishment of the preset assignments for cyborg insects. The existing research has recognized that the electrical stimulation applied to the optic lobes was an appropriate flight control strategy for small insects represented by honeybee. This control technique has been confirmed to be effective for honeybee flight initiation and cessation. However, its regulation effect on steering locomotion has not been fully verified. Here, we investigated the steering control effect of honeybee by applying electrical stimulation signals with different duty cycles and frequencies on the unilateral optic lobes and screened the stimulus parameters with the highest response successful rate. Moreover, we confirmed the effectiveness of steering control by verifying the presence of rotation torque on tethered honeybees and the body orientation change of crawling honeybees. Our study will contribute some reliable parameter references to the motion control of cyborg honeybees.
Recognition of Drivers’ Hard and Soft Braking Intentions Based on Hybrid Brain-Computer Interfaces
In this paper, we propose simultaneous and sequential hybrid brain-computer interfaces (hBCIs) that incorporate electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals to classify drivers’ hard braking, soft braking, and normal driving intentions to better assist driving for the first time. The simultaneous hBCIs adopt a feature-level fusion strategy (hBCI-FL) and classifier-level fusion strategies (hBCIs-CL). The sequential hBCIs include the hBCI-SE1, where EEG signals are prioritized to detect hard braking, and hBCI-SE2, where EMG signals are prioritized to detect hard braking. Experimental results show that the proposed hBCI-SE1 with spectral features and the one-vs-rest classification strategy performs best with an average system accuracy of 96.37% among hBCIs. This work is valuable for developing human-centric intelligent assistant driving systems to improve driving safety and driving comfort and promote the application of BCIs.
3D-Stacked Multistage Inertial Microfluidic Chip for High-Throughput Enrichment of Circulating Tumor Cells
Whether for cancer diagnosis or single-cell analysis, it remains a major challenge to isolate the target sample cells from a large background cell for high-efficiency downstream detection and analysis in an integrated chip. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a 3D-stacked multistage inertial microfluidic sorting chip for high-throughput enrichment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and convenient downstream analysis. In this chip, the first stage is a spiral channel with a trapezoidal cross-section, which has better separation performance than a spiral channel with a rectangular cross-section. The second and third stages adopt symmetrical square serpentine channels with different rectangular cross-section widths for further separation and enrichment of sample cells reducing the outlet flow rate for easier downstream detection and analysis. The multistage channel can separate 5 μm and 15 μm particles with a separation efficiency of 92.37% and purity of 98.10% at a high inlet flow rate of 1.3 mL/min. Meanwhile, it can separate tumor cells (SW480, A549, and Caki-1) from massive red blood cells (RBCs) with a separation efficiency of >80%, separation purity of >90%, and a concentration fold of ~20. The proposed work is aimed at providing a high-throughput sample processing system that can be easily integrated with flowing sample detection methods for rapid CTC analysis.
A Manta Ray-Inspired Biosyncretic Robot with Stable Controllability by Dynamic Electric Stimulation
Biosyncretic robots, which are new nature-based robots in addition to bionic robots, that utilize biological materials to realize their core function, have been supposed to further promote the progress in robotics. Actuation as the main operation mechanism relates to the robotic overall performance. Therefore, biosyncretic robots actuated by living biological actuators have attracted increasing attention. However, innovative propelling modes and control methods are still necessary for the further development of controllable motion performance of biosyncretic robots. In this work, a muscle tissue-based biosyncretic swimmer with a manta ray-inspired propelling mode has been developed. What is more, to improve the stable controllability of the biosyncretic swimmer, a dynamic control method based on circularly distributed multiple electrodes (CDME) has been proposed. In this method, the direction of the electric field generated by the CDME could be real-time controlled to be parallel with the actuation tissue of the dynamic swimmer. Therefore, the instability of the tissue actuation induced by the dynamic included angle between the tissue axis and electric field direction could be eliminated. Finally, the biosyncretic robot has demonstrated stable, controllable, and effective swimming, by adjusting the electric stimulation pulse direction, amplitude, and frequency. This work may be beneficial for not only the development of biosyncretic robots but also other related studies including bionic design of soft robots and muscle tissue engineering.
Hydrodynamic Modeling and Parameter Identification of a Bionic Underwater Vehicle: RobDact
In this paper, the hydrodynamic modeling and parameter identification of the RobDact, a bionic underwater vehicle inspired by Dactylopteridae, are carried out based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and force measurement experiment. Firstly, the paper briefly describes the RobDact, then establishes the kinematics model and rigid body dynamics model of the RobDact according to the hydrodynamic force and moment equations. Through CFD simulations, the hydrodynamic force of the RobDact at different speeds is obtained, and then, the hydrodynamic model parameters are identified. Furthermore, the measurement platform is developed to obtain the relationship between the thrust generated by the RobDact and the input fluctuation parameters. Finally, by combining the rigid body dynamics model and the fin thrust mapping model, the hydrodynamic model of the RobDact at different motion states is constructed.