Clinical applications of autologous cell sheet-based regenerative medicine. (a) Schematic of harvesting, manipulating, and transplanting mono- and multilayered autologous cell sheets for regeneration of various types of human tissues and organs. (b) Transplantation of autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet for treatments of damaged artificial ulceration after esophageal ESD. This illustration of (b) was adopted from reference [13
] with permission form AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. (c) Transplantation of autologous nasal mucosal epithelial cell sheet for regeneration of postoperative mucosal regeneration of the middle ear. This image from reference [17
] (K. Yamamoto et al., Middle ear mucosal regeneration by tissue-engineered cell sheet transplantation, 2017, npj Regenerative Medicine, 2, pp. 6) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY-4.0). (d) Transplantation of autologous dermal fibroblast sheet for sealing the air leaks [19
]. This image from reference [19
] (M. Kanzaki et al., Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet, 2017, npj Regenerative Medicine, 2, pp. 26) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY-4.0). (e) Transplantation of three-layered autologous PDL tissue derived cell sheets on the root of the damaged tooth. This image was adopted from reference [15
] with permission from The Japanese Society for Regenerative Medicine. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.