Schematic showing perspective views of the gel culture procedures in the developed system. (a) The research design flow. (b) The outer chamber and the gelation insert with their main dimensions. (c) The mold was filled with cell-gel mixture. Before filling, four PTFE pillars were attached to the mold. (d) Setup for gel culture. After gelation, the cell-gel mixture was overlaid with medium. (e) Setup for culture with electrical stimulation. The insert was removed and a pair of Pt electrodes were placed along the walls of the outer chamber. (f) Schematic illustration of the whole system. The medium replacement unit was a commercially available one. In the electrical stimulation unit, bipolar pulses generated by the DAQ device were amplified and applied to TEMs in the gel culture molds. (g) Photo of the six gel molds in the 6-well plate connected via silicone tubes with the pumps of the medium replacement unit. Pt electrodes were fixed in place with the lid of the 6-well plate and connected via metal wires with the electrical stimulation unit (not shown).