Cyborg and Bionic Systems / 2021 / Article / Fig 7

Research Article

An Electrical Stimulation Culture System for Daily Maintenance-Free Muscle Tissue Production

Figure 7

Contractile forces of TEMs cultured without and with electrical stimulation. (a) The patterns of the electrical pulses are applied to TEMs. The inset shows in detail single and continuous pulses. (b) Contractile forces of TEMs cultured under various conditions. For the case shown by the first bar from the left, the TEM was cultured without electrical stimulation but with the addition of IGF-1. For the case shown by the second bar, the TEM was cultured without electrical stimulation or addition of IGF-1. All other bars were for culturing cases with both electrical stimulation and IGF-1 addition. On the bottom axis, the frequency of the stimulation (Hz) is shown with “p,” which means the numbers of electrical pulses applied at one stimulus. The addition of IGF-1 increased the contractile force significantly, while the effects of electrical stimulation depended on the conditions. The indicates a statistically significant difference against “No p” in each group ( to 6).