Toroidal configuration of the stacked balloon concept to shape the toroidal actuator (TA). (a) Fabrication mold for casting of the units that conform to (b) the toroidal chambers and a detailed view showing the dimensions of their cross-sectional area. (c) Exploded views of the different parts that conform to the toroidal AAC and RAC. (d) Exploded view showing the assembled independent chambers. Insert (i) shows that to bond the different chambers, we glued the AAC membranes to the RAC’s exoskeleton using chemical bonding (CA). (e) Conceptual image of the TA actuated with one AAC and two RACs.