Cyborg and Bionic Systems / 2022 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Biohybrid Micro- and Nanorobots for Intelligent Drug Delivery

Figure 2

(a) Macrophage-based biohybrid microrobots for active tumor therapy. Reproduced with permission from Reference [50]. Copyright 2016, The Authors, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. (b) Active drug delivery of dual-responsive neutrobots towards the malignant glioma. ① Active cumulation of neutrobots towards the glioma under an external magnetic field. ② Chemotaxis of neutrobots along the gradient of the inflammatory factors. ③ BBB penetration of neutrobots. ④ Local release of PTX from neutrobots inside the malignant glioma. Note: BBB/BBTB = blood-brain barrier/blood-brain tumor barrier. Reproduced with permission from Reference [56]. Copyright 2021, The Authors, exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science.