Cyborg and Bionic Systems / 2022 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Biohybrid Micro- and Nanorobots for Intelligent Drug Delivery

Figure 3

(a) Schematic illustration of magnetically navigated, ultrasonically propelled RBC micromotors in the whole blood. Reproduced with permission from Reference [58]. Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society. (b) Sperm flagella-driven micro-bio-robots. (A) Optical image of a bull spermatozoon. (B, D) SEM images of rolled-up Ti/Fe microtube on glass with a sperm at the opening of tube. (C) Illustrative fabrication of a micro-bio-robot through trapping a motile sperm inside a Ti/Fe microtube for magnetic remote control. (E) Optical image of a sperm (yellow shadow) trapped inside a Ti/Fe microtube (yellow dots). Note: blue arrow = sperm head; red arrow = sperm flagellum. Reproduced with permission from Reference [64]. Copyright 2013, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.