(a) Spermbots for targeted DOX delivery. (A) Illustration of a microfluidic chip for the transport and delivery of drug-loaded sperm. (B) SEM images indicating the fusion of sperm and HeLa cell. Note: red arrows = a cell in apoptosis; blue arrows = live cells. Reproduced with permission from Reference [79
]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society. (b) Urease-powered Janus platelet robots for enhanced anticancer/antibacterial activity through loading DOX chemodrug or ciprofloxacin (Cip) antibiotic for active, targeted drug delivery. (A) Schematic illustration of DOX-loaded JPL-motors for targeted delivery to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. (B) Pseudocolored SEM image of multiple JPL-motors (red) attaching to a single cancer cell (purple). (C) Pseudocolored SEM image showing the binding between a Cip-loaded JPL-motor (green) and a single E. coli (red). Reproduced with permission from Reference [60
]. Copyright 2020, The Authors, exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science.