Architecture of solid-state batteries with a porous mixed ion-electron conductor (MIEC) interlayer on the anode side. (a) Garnet coated with carbon nanotubes. Adapted with permission from Ref. [22
]. Copyright (2018) American Chemical Society. (b) Cu nanowire coated with Sn-Ni alloy. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [24
]. Copyright (2019) American Chemical Society. (c) Aligned MIEC tubules. (d) Ag-C nanocomposite. (c) and (d) are adapted from Ref. [20
] and Ref. [25
], respectively, with permission from Springer Nature.