Plant Phenomics / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Nondestructive Phenomic Tools for the Prediction of Heat and Drought Tolerance at Anthesis in Brassica Species

Table 2

The mean squares (MS) and degrees of freedom (df) of treatments and residuals for genotype (G), heat (H), drought (D), and their interactions for 11 phenomic traits and 3 agronomic traits as measured on 12 Brassica genotypes from 1 to 7 days after treatments (DAT) during anthesis. The statistical significance of main effects and interactions is shown as 0.01 < p < 0.05 () and p < 0.01 (). “ns” and “NA” indicate “not significant” and “not applicable,” respectively.

TraitDATSource of variationResiduals
GHDG×HG×DH×DG×H×D
df =11df =1df =1df =11df =11df =1df =11dfMS

(i) Six in-cabinet rapid phenotyping traits

PRI10.00400.0006nsnsnsnsns960.0001
30.00280.0007nsnsnsnsns960.0001
50.1000nsns0.1093nsnsns960.0049
7nsns0.0005nsnsnsns960.0001

Qy10.02600.0060nsnsnsnsns960.0010
30.0419nsnsnsnsnsns960.0007
50.0318ns0.0069nsnsnsns960.0008
70.04090.01560.0330nsns0.0336ns960.0014

T11ns71.700nsnsnsnsns965.6368
3118.45289.508nsnsnsnsns963.3334
5122.40067.80097.300nsns86.500ns965.3684
7123.480ns193.590nsns61.460ns964.7786

T21132.360462.590nsnsnsnsns965.9198
3179.160264.88096.86nsns42.140ns965.1332
5284.740ns599.43nsns255.470ns968.1280
7203.71031.9201187.95nsns219.530ns966.3080

T31207.403169.743nsnsnsnsns966.7461
3ns33.04655.406nsns29.348ns964.6506
5101.137ns209.639nsns51.073100.395964.9548
7nsns418.200nsns55.600ns965.2742

LC1447132nsnsnsnsnsns967670.82
3440562ns211692nsns91991ns964992.83
526329928906539613nsns63756ns965936.44
7ns18381651370nsnsnsns963676.20

(ii) Three photosynthetic traits derived from A/Ci curve

Vcmax13815920115821003562517665nsNA12293.98
3ns191108nsnsnsnsNA122407.81
7ns1704239130nsns17887NA121018.22

ETR1161892031ns4424nsnsNA12114.25
381182337nsnsnsnsNA12285.85
7ns1077623629nsns7068NA12886.04

TPU1117.500nsnsnsnsnsNA121.9685
353.70016.300nsnsnsnsNA121.5817
7153.900ns96.100ns125.300nsNA123.6774

(iii) Two plant growth imaging-derived phenotyping traits

VolWP3463877ns19157ns31012nsns961245.17
726172530020267973ns126866nsns961461.15

VolF3102.935nsns20.590ns3.112ns960.5380
7241.57018.74065.87034.95054.3205.680ns961.1831

(iv) Three agronomic traits

FW71012561168241238679600141512104105545481883.69

SYAt harvest12.78914.7194.490nsnsnsNA120.9399

SWAt harvest0.01980.0101nsnsnsnsNA120.0015

G×H: Genotype by Heat interaction; G×D: Genotype by Drought interaction; H×D: Heat by Drought interaction; G×H×D: Genotype by Heat by Drought interaction.
The phenomic traits include (i) six in-cabinet rapid phenotyping traits: photochemical reflectance index (PRI), photosystem II quantum yield (Qy), leaf conductance (LC), and the temperature differences between (a) bud and ambient environment (T1), (b) leaf and ambient environment (T2), and (c) bud and leaf (T3); (ii) three photosynthetic traits derived from A/Ci curves: maximum carboxylation rate allowed by Rubisco (Vcmax), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and the rate of triose phosphate use (TPU); and (iii) two plant growth imaging derived phenotyping traits: whole plant volume (VolWP) and flower volume (VolF).
The agronomic traits include fresh weight (FW) of the whole plant at DAT7, and seed yield (SY) and 100-seed weight (SW) of each plant at maturity.