The top row (a, b) illustrates the ground robots’ sensor setup and how it traverses the field, while images from (c) to (h) in the bottom two rows are typical video frame images, taken by the ground robot, viewing the same plot from the north and south sides. (a) Sensor setup on the ground robot. (b) Diagram demonstrating how the ground robot typically traverses a soybean field test. (c) North: image 1. (d) North: image 2. (e) North: image 3. (f) South: image 1. (g) South: image 2. (h) South: image 3.