Journal of Remote Sensing / 2021 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Mapping Crop Phenology in Near Real-Time Using Satellite Remote Sensing: Challenges and Opportunities

Table 1

Key crop growth stages and description for corn and soybean (adopted from USDA NASS) and remote sensing phenology (LSP).

CornDescriptionSoybeanDescriptionPhenology from remote sensing

PlantingWhen the seeds are placed in the groundPlantingWhen the seeds are placed in the groundNo detection, but correlate to greenup onset or midgreenup phase
EmergenceAs soon as the plants are visibleEmergenceAs soon as the plants are visibleGreenup onset (or correlate to midgreenup phase)
SilkingThe emergence of silk-like strands from the end of earsBloomingAs soon as one bloom appearsMaximum greenness onset
DoughHalf of the kernels show dent with some thick or dough-like substance in all kernelsSetting podsPods develop on the lower nodes, with some blooming still occurring on the upper nodesSenescence onset
DentAll kernels are fully dented and the ear is firm and solid, but no milk present in most kernelsTurning yellowLeaves of soybean start to turn yellowBetween senescence onset and midsenescence onset
MatureSafe from frost and is about ready to harvest with shucks opening, no green foliage presentDropping leavesLeaves near the bottom of the plant are yellow and dropping, while leaves at the very top may still be green, leaves are 30-50 percent yellowMidsenescence onset
HarvestCut, threshed, or gathered from the fieldHarvestCut, threshed, or gathered from the fieldDormancy onset