Implantable Thermal Therapeutic Device with Precise Temperature Control Enabled by Foldable Electronics and Heat-Insulating Pads

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Journal profile

The open access journal Research, published in association with CAST, publishes innovative, wide-ranging research in life sciences, physical sciences, engineering and applied science.

Editorial board

Research's Editorial Board includes international experts in fields ranging from life sciences to physical sciences. Tianhong Cui of University of Minnesota and Weimin Bao of China Association for Science and Technology serve as the Editors-in-Chief of the journal.


Recently published special issues:

• Perovskite Materials

• Organic Super Long Afterglow


Research is now indexed in Web of Science SCIE in the multidisciplinary category and is expected to receive its first Impact Factor in 2022.

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Research Article

Low Infrared Emissivity and Strong Stealth of Ti-Based MXenes

Advanced scenario-adaptable infrared (IR) stealth materials are crucial for creating localized closed thermal environments. Low emissivity over the broadest possible band is expected, as is superior mechanical deformability. Herein, we report a series of Ti-based MXenes with naturally low emissivity as ideal IR shielding materials. Over a wavelength ranging from 2.5 to 25 μm, Ti3C2T film delivers an average emissivity of 0.057 with the lowest point of 0.042. Such a low emissivity coupled with outstanding structural shaping capability is beyond the current grasp. The reflection-dominated mechanism is dissected. Also, some intriguing scenarios of IR stealth for wearable electronic devices and skin thermal control are demonstrated. This finding lights an encouraging path toward next-generation IR shielding by the expanding MXene family.

Research Article

A Humidity-Powered Soft Robot with Fast Rolling Locomotion

A range of soft robotic systems have recently been developed that use soft, flexible materials and respond to environmental stimulus. The greatest challenge in their design is the integration of the actuator, energy sources, and body of robots while achieving fast locomotion and well-defined programmable trajectories. This work presents such a design that operates under constant conditions without the need for an externally modulated stimulus. By using a humidity-sensitive agarose film and overcoming the isotropic and random bending of the film, the robot, which we call the Hydrollbot, harnesses energy from evaporation for spontaneous and continuous fast self-rolling locomotion with a programmable trajectory in a constant-humidity environment. Moreover, the geometric parameters of the film were fine-tuned to maximize the rolling speed, and the optimised hydrollbot is capable of carrying a payload up to 100% of its own weight. The ability to self-propel fast under constant conditions with programmable trajectories will confer practical advantages to this robot in the applications for sensors, medical robots, actuation, etc.

Research Article

Ultrasensitive Frequency Shifting of Dielectric Mie Resonance near Metallic Substrate

Dielectric resonators on metallic surface can enhance far-field scattering and boost near-field response having promising applications in nonlinear optics and reflection-type devices. However, the dependence of gap size between dielectric resonator and metallic surface on Mie resonant frequency is complex and desires a comprehensive physical interpretation. Here, we systematically study the effect of metallic substrate on the magnetic dipole (MD) resonant frequency at X-band by placing a high permittivity CaTiO3 ceramic block on metallic substrate and regulating their gap size. The simulated and experimental results show that there are two physical mechanisms to codetermine the metallic substrate-induced MD frequency. The greatly enhanced electric field pair in the gap and the coupling of MD resonance with its mirror image are decisive for small and large gaps, respectively, making the MD resonant frequency present an exponential blue shift first and then a slight red shift with increasing gap size. Further, we use the two mechanisms to explain different frequency shifting properties of ceramic sphere near metallic substrate. Finally, taking advantage of the sharp frequency shifting to small gaps, the ceramic block is demonstrated to accurately estimate the thickness or permittivity of thin film on metallic substrate through a governing equation derived from the method of symbolic regression. We believe that our study will help to understand the resonant frequency shifting for dielectric particle near metallic substrate and give some prototypes of ultrasensitive detectors.

Research Article

High-Precision Colorimetric Sensing by Dynamic Tracking of Solvent Diffusion in Hollow-Sphere Photonic Crystals

Expensive instruments and complicated data processing are often required to discriminate solvents with similar structures and properties. Colorimetric sensors with high selectivity, low cost, and good portability are highly desirable to simplify such detection tasks. Herein, we report the fabrication of a photonic crystal sensor based on the self-assembled resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) hollow spheres to realize colorimetric sensing of polar solvents, including homologs and isomers based on the saturated diffusion time. The diffusion of solvent molecules through the photonic crystal film exhibits a unique three-step diffusion profile accompanied by a dynamic color change, as determined by the physicochemical properties of the solvent molecules and their interactions with the polymer shells, making it possible to accurately identify the solvent type based on the dynamic reflection spectra or visual perception. With its superior selectivity and sensitivity, this single-component colorimetric sensor represents a straightforward tool for convenient solvent detection and identification.

Research Article

Continuity Scaling: A Rigorous Framework for Detecting and Quantifying Causality Accurately

Data-based detection and quantification of causation in complex, nonlinear dynamical systems is of paramount importance to science, engineering, and beyond. Inspired by the widely used methodology in recent years, the cross-map-based techniques, we develop a general framework to advance towards a comprehensive understanding of dynamical causal mechanisms, which is consistent with the natural interpretation of causality. In particular, instead of measuring the smoothness of the cross-map as conventionally implemented, we define causation through measuring the scaling law for the continuity of the investigated dynamical system directly. The uncovered scaling law enables accurate, reliable, and efficient detection of causation and assessment of its strength in general complex dynamical systems, outperforming those existing representative methods. The continuity scaling-based framework is rigorously established and demonstrated using datasets from model complex systems and the real world.

Research Article

Experimental Quantum Advantage with Quantum Coupon Collector

An increasing number of communication and computational schemes with quantum advantages have recently been proposed, which implies that quantum technology has fertile application prospects. However, demonstrating these schemes experimentally continues to be a central challenge because of the difficulty in preparing high-dimensional states or highly entangled states. In this study, we introduce and analyze a quantum coupon collector protocol by employing coherent states and simple linear optical elements, which was successfully demonstrated using realistic experimental equipment. We showed that our protocol can significantly reduce the number of samples needed to learn a specific set compared with the classical limit of the coupon collector problem. We also discuss the potential values and expansions of the quantum coupon collector by constructing a quantum blind box game. The information transmitted by the proposed game also broke the classical limit. These results strongly prove the advantages of quantum mechanics in machine learning and communication complexity.