CiteScore 2020: 4.7!
Research's CiteScore 2020 of 4.7 places the journal in the top 10% of the Scopus multidisciplinary category.Learn more about CiteScore
The open access journal Research, published in association with CAST, publishes innovative, wide-ranging research in life sciences, physical sciences, engineering and applied science.
Research's Editorial Board includes international experts in fields ranging from life sciences to physical sciences. Tianhong Cui of University of Minnesota and Wei Huang of Northwestern Polytechnical University, China serve as the Editors-in-Chief of the journal.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Recent Progress on Metal-Enhanced Photocatalysis: A Review on the Mechanism
Metal-enhanced photocatalysis has recently received increasing interest, mainly due to the ability of metal to directly or indirectly degrade pollutants. In this review, we briefly review the recent breakthroughs in metal-enhanced photocatalysis. We discussed the recent progress of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect and small size effect of metal nanoparticles on photocatalysis; in particular, we focus on elucidating the mechanism of energy transfer and hot electron injection/transfer effect of metal nanoparticles and clusters while as photocatalysts or as cophotocatalysts. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of metal-enhanced photocatalysis, and we also offer some perspectives for further investigations.
Conductive Porous MXene for Bionic, Wearable, and Precise Gesture Motion Sensors
Reliable, wide range, and highly sensitive joint movement monitoring is essential for training activities, human behavior analysis, and human-machine interfaces. Yet, most current motion sensors work on the nano/microcracks induced by the tensile deformation on the convex surface of joints during joint movements, which cannot satisfy requirements of ultrawide detectable angle range, high angle sensitivity, conformability, and consistence under cyclic movements. In nature, scorpions sense small vibrations by allowing for compression strain conversion from external mechanical vibrations through crack-shaped slit sensilla. Here, we demonstrated that ultraconformal sensors based on controlled slit structures, inspired by the geometry of a scorpion’s slit sensilla, exhibit high sensitivity (0.45%deg-1), ultralow angle detection threshold (~15°), fast response/relaxation times (115/72 ms), wide range (15° ~120°), and durability (over 1000 cycles). Also, a user-friendly, hybrid sign language system has been developed to realize Chinese and American sign language recognition and feedback through video and speech broadcasts, making these conformal motion sensors promising candidates for joint movement monitoring in wearable electronics and robotics technology.
The Warming Climate Aggravates Atmospheric Nitrogen Pollution in Australia
Australia is a warm country with well-developed agriculture and a highly urbanized population. How these specific features impact the nitrogen cycle, emissions, and consequently affect environmental and human health is not well understood. Here, we find that the ratio of reactive nitrogen () losses to air over losses to water in Australia is 1.6 as compared to values less than 1.1 in the USA, the European Union, and China. Australian emissions to air increased by more than 70% between 1961 and 2013, from 1.2 Tg N yr-1 to 2.1 Tg N yr-1. Previous emissions were substantially underestimated mainly due to neglecting the warming climate. The estimated health cost from atmospheric emissions in Australia is 4.6 billion US dollars per year. Emissions of to the environment are closely correlated with economic growth, and reduction of losses to air is a priority for sustainable development in Australia.
Visualizing Material Processing via Photoexcitation-Controlled Organic-Phase Aggregation-Induced Emission
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been much employed for visualizing material aggregation and self-assembly. However, water is generally required for the preparation of the AIE aggregates, the operation of which limits numerous material processing behaviors. Employing hexathiobenzene-based small molecules, monopolymers, and block copolymers as different material prototypes, we herein achieve AIE in pure organic phases by applying a nonequilibrium strategy, photoexcitation-controlled aggregation. This strategy enabled a dynamic change of molecular conformation rather than chemical structure upon irradiation, leading to a continuous aggregation-dependent luminescent enhancement (up to ~200-fold increase of the luminescent quantum yield) in organic solvents. Accompanied by the materialization of the nonequilibrium strategy, photoconvertible self-assemblies with a steady-state characteristic can be achieved upon organic solvent processing. The visual monitoring with the luminescence change covered the whole solution-to-film transition, as well as the in situ photoprocessing of the solid-state materials.
Electron-Beam Irradiation Induced Regulation of Surface Defects in Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Films
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been intensively studied due to their fascinating optoelectronic performance. Electron microscopy and related characterization techniques are powerful to figure out their structure-property relationships at the nanoscale. However, electron beam irradiation usually causes damage to these beam-sensitive materials and thus deteriorates the associated devices. Taking a widely used CH3NH3PbI3 film as an example, here, we carry out a comprehensive study on how electron beam irradiation affects its properties. Interestingly, our results reveal that photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the film can be significantly improved along with blue-shift of emission peak at a specific electron beam dose interval. This improvement stems from the reduction of trap density at the CH3NH3PbI3 surface. The knock-on effect helps expose a fresh surface assisted by the surface defect-induced lowering of displacement threshold energy. Meanwhile, the radiolysis process consistently degrades the crystal structure and weaken the PL emission with the increase of electron beam dose. Consequently, the final PL emission comes from a balance between knock-on and radiolysis effects. Taking advantage of the defect regulation, we successfully demonstrate a patterned CH3NH3PbI3 film with controllable PL emission and a photodetector with enhanced photocurrent. This work will trigger the application of electron beam irradiation as a powerful tool for perovskite materials processing in micro-LEDs and other optoelectronic applications.
Editing the Shape Morphing of Monocomponent Natural Polysaccharide Hydrogel Films
Shape-morphing hydrogels can be widely used to develop artificial muscles, reconfigurable biodevices, and soft robotics. However, conventional approaches for developing shape-morphing hydrogels highly rely on composite materials or complex manufacturing techniques, which limit their practical applications. Herein, we develop an unprecedented strategy to edit the shape morphing of monocomponent natural polysaccharide hydrogel films via integrating gradient cross-linking density and geometry effect. Owing to the synergistic effect, the shape morphing of chitosan (CS) hydrogel films with gradient cross-linking density can be facilely edited by changing their geometries (length-to-width ratios or thicknesses). Therefore, helix, short-side rolling, and long-side rolling can be easily customized. Furthermore, various complex artificial 3D deformations such as artificial claw, horn, and flower can also be obtained by combining various flat CS hydrogel films with different geometries into one system, which can further demonstrate various shape transformations as triggered by pH. This work offers a simple strategy to construct a monocomponent hydrogel with geometry-directing programmable deformations, which provides universal insights into the design of shape-morphing polymers and will promote their applications in biodevices and soft robotics.