Comparison and simulation of the separation process and adhesive forces at curing interfaces. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for force-displacement curve measurement. The supporting plate is mounted on a load cell with the micro-displacement control stage, which measures the real-time vertical adhesion between the cured resin and the curing interface during the supporting plate lifting process. Elevated by the micro-displacement stage, the cured resin can be peeled off from the resin tank with a steady speed. A circular light pattern is projected onto the curing interface at constant light intensity. (b) Experimental comparison of the adhesive forces between the cured resin and the curing interfaces. Violet, magenta, black, red, orange, and blue lines are force-displacement curves of quartz, F-quartz, PDMS, F-PDMS, silicone oil swelled PDMS, and the ultra-low adhesive S-PDMS interfaces, respectively. The data of quartz-based surfaces use the axis on the left and the data of the PDMS-based surfaces use the axis on the right. (c) Simulation of the separation process between the cured columnar resin and the curing interface. (c1) Scheme of the initial stage of simulation, i.e., the contact mode of the columnar resin with the curing interface. (c2) Scheme of the bilinear representation of the force-displacement law that represents the Cohesive Zone Model. (c3) Scheme of the damage evolution process during the separation process, which results in the deformation of the curing interface. (c4) Scheme of the ultimate separation distance where the bonded interfaces are completely separated and interaction force vanishes. (d) Simulation of the force distribution which reveals the detailed separation process of the in situ cured resin from the curing interfaces of PDMS, F-PDMS, and S-PDMS. Compared with PDMS and F-PDMS surfaces, S-PDMS exhibits the lowest adhesive force, the smallest deformation area on the curing interface, and the shortest separation distance, which results in the lowest damage both to the cured resin and to the curing interface.