Rapid fabrication of 3D architectures by continuous 3D printing process. (a) Optical images of bulk structures including (a1) the bulk ear structure with contact area of ~ 7 cm × 3 cm; (a2) the gate of Heavenly structure; (a3) the Leaning Tower of Pisa structure; (a4) the Roman Colosseum structure, fabricated on S-PDMS surface. (b) Complex structures with free standing parts can be fabricated on S-PDMS surface without supporting materials. (b1) Optical image of the 3D structure composed of freestanding hollow tubes. (b2) Optical image of the bird's nest structure with freestanding inner top edge. (b3) Optical image of the 3D structure composed of connecting lines. (b4) Optical images of the arrayed bending cilia structures. Inset is the enlarged optical image of the tilt cilia structure. (c) Biomimetic 3D structure fabrication on the S-PDMS surface. (c1) SEM image of the structure of the peristome surface of the pitcher plant. (c2) SEM images of the biomimetic constructed 3D structure on S-PDMS surface. (c3) and (c4) are the liquid directional transportation property of the 3D printed biomimetic structure. Green dot line and the red arrow indicate the position of the droplet TCL at 0s and 7.5s, respectively.