“Sticky” codons exhibit frame-specific features. (a) Relative ratio of 61 sense codons in three reading frames of coding regions within the human genome. (b) Distribution of “sticky” codons and CDS ribosome density on β-actin gene ACTB. Gene structure is shown above with all “sticky” codons represented as perpendicular lines in all three reading frames. Ribosome density across the CDS is shown below. (c) Distribution of “sticky” codons and CDS ribosome density on OAZ1. +1 PRF site is indicated by dotted line.