Overview of NM-protein interaction: cause and effect of nanobiointerface. Protein adsorption on nanomaterials (NMs) depends upon physiochemical properties of NMs, such as size, shape, and charges on the NMs surface. This is sometimes governed by the charges of the ligands attached on the surface to interact with proteins. Proteins often face conformational changes upon NM interaction. The secondary structure (α-helices, β-sheets, and random coils) gets perturbed due to interaction with NMs. There is a distinct influence of NMs on self-assembly of proteins. In the presence of NMs, an appropriate conformational change of protein happens which leads to dramatic increase in rate of fibrillation. The binding of proteins onto NMs can lead to NM aggregation associated with protein aggregation.