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Review Article

Inner-View of Nanomaterial Incited Protein Conformational Changes: Insights into Designable Interaction

Table 2

Summary of literature on proteins subjected to conformational changes upon interaction with nanoparticle surfaces [7, 8].

NP type and sizeProtein investigatedChange in protein structureAnalytical techniqueObservations

ZnO NPs (25 nm)Vibrio cholera Tox rYesCDNP-protein complex susceptible to denaturation

ZnO NPs (N/A)BSAYesCDMinor conformational changes, secondary structure retained

ZnO NPs (N/A)BSAYesFTIRMinor conformational changes in secondary structure

TiO2 NPs (20 nm)TubulinYesFSProtein polymerization affected

SiO2 NPs (40) nmBSAYesRSBSA and lactoperoxidase bound irreversibly
Hen egg lysozymeNo
RNASe ANo
LactoperoxidaseYes

SiO2 NPs (6,9,15 nm)Human Carbonic anhydraseYesNMRProtein activity was retained

Alumina and hydroxyapatite Particles(100-300nm) BSAYesFTIRLoss in α-helical structure
Hen egg lysozymeYes
Bovine serum fibrinogenYes

Gold (45 nm)BSAYesCDConformational change was dose dependent

Gold (5-100 nm)AlbuminYesCD and FSMinor conformational changes observed
FibrinogenYes
ɣ-globulinYes
Histone H3Yes
InsulinYes

Gold (7-22 nm)Human FibrinogenYesCDUnfolding induced immune response in THP-1 cells

SPIONs (5-10 nm)TransferrinYesCDIrreversible interaction

SWCNTs (N/A) Horse radish peroxidiseNoCDNP-protein complexes retained enzymatic activity
Subtilisin CarlsbergNo
Chicken egg white lysozymeNo
LaccaseYes