Noninvasive Ultrasound Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease Model Mouse
UDBS increases c-Fos positive neurons in the STN and the GP. Respective c-Fos staining in the STN (a) and the GP (c). Cells with nuclear c-Fos staining (brown cell nuclei) represent cells that respond to ultrasound stimulation, and UDBS targeted regions are indicated by red ellipses. The percent of c-Fos positive neurons in the STN (b) and the GP (d) is normalized with sham group (independent sample t-test, p < 0.05, mean ± SEM, n = 3 per group).