Noninvasive Ultrasound Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease Model Mouse
UDBS of STN or GP improves motor behavior in MPTP mice. (a) UDBS improves motor performance in the rotarod test. The latency to fall is significantly decreased in group II compared with that in group I. The time on the rod is increased in groups III and IV compared with that in group II on day 9. There is no significant difference between groups III and IV on day 6, 9, and 12. (b) UDBS recovers the time to climb down in the pole test. The time spent climbing down the pole is increased in group II compared with that in group I on day 6 and 12. The time spent climbing down is significantly decreased in groups III and IV compared with that in group II on day 12. (c) No differences in horizontal movement are found among all groups. (d) UDBS improves vertical movement on day 12. The rearing number is significantly decreased in group II compared with that in group I on day 12 and no significantly increased in groups III and IV compared with group II. (group I: control-sham, group II: MPTP-sham, group III: MPTP-STN-UDBS and group IV: MPTP-GP-UDBS; one–way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc: p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001; Kruskal Wallis nonparametric ANOVA for the rotarod test on day 9 and 12; mean ± SEM, n = 9 per group in (a) and (b), n = 8 per group in (c) and (d)).