Noninvasive Ultrasound Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease Model Mouse
STN-UDBS or GP-UDBS suppresses MPTP induced cell apoptosis. (a) Bcl-2 is downregulated and Bax is upregulated after MPTP injections. These levels are restored by ultrasound stimulation. Besides, UDBS reverses cleaved-caspase 3 activity induced by MPTP treatment. (b) Cyt C release from mitochondria increases after MPTP treatment, and decreases following ultrasound stimulation. (group I: control-sham, group II: MPTP-sham, group III: MPTP-STN-UDBS and group IV: MPTP-GP-UDBS; one–way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc: p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 for Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt C and cleaved-caspase 3 analysis; Kruskal Wallis nonparametric ANOVA for Bcl-2/Bax analysis; mean ± SEM, n = 8 per group for Bcl-2 and Bax, n = 4 per group for cleaved-caspase 3 and Cyt C).