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Review Article

Tunable/Reconfigurable Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications

Table 1

Comparison of different approaches to realize tunable and reconfigurable metadevices.

Tuning ApproachMaterialsExternal knotsOperation spectrumFunctionalitiesModulation range/speedRef.

Carrier dopingSemiconductorsElectricalTHz to Visiblemodulator55%/2MHz[58]
Optical90%/NA[38]
GrapheneElectricalTHz to NIRpolarizer/absorber243°/NA[26]
100%/20GHz[77]
TCOElectricalNIR to Visiblephase modulator30%/10MHz[52]

Phase transition Liquid CrystalsElectricalGHz to Visiblemodulator/beam deflector/color filter70%/NA[84]
Thermal12°/NA[111]
Optical18%/NA[123]
VO2ElectricalTHz to visiblemodulator80%/1KHz[104]
Thermalmodulator20%/NA[42]
Opticalmodulator38%/NA[39]
GSTElectricalTHz to Visiblecolor tuning100%/NA[107]
Thermalbeam switchingNA[106]
Opticalmodulator400%/10MHz[40]
SuperconductorThermalGHz to THzmodulator35%/NA[44]

MechanicsMEMS/NEMSElectromechanicalGHz to Visiblemodulator31%/1KHz[31]
8%/ to MHz[33]
ElasticityMechanicalGHz to VisibleColor tuning/Tunable lens27%/NA[94]
NA/NA[53]
MicrofluidicsMicrofluidicsGHz to Visiblepolarization converter/color printingNA/NA[35]
NA/62Hz[98]

CapacitanceVaractor/PIN diodeElectricalMHz-GHzTunable lens/reprogrammable hologramNA/NA[48]
NA/100KHz[49]