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Review Article

A Review of Printable Flexible and Stretchable Tactile Sensors

Table 2

Various types of printing methods used for the fabrication of flexible/stretchable tactile sensors.

YearFabrication techniquePrinter usedMinimum detailPrinted componentTransduction principleRef.

2019Fused filament fabrication (FFF)Customized FFF printerSensing elementPiezoresistive[236]
2019Fused filament fabrication (FFF)MakerBot 2X replicator200 μmSensing element, sensor bodyPiezoresistive[237]
2019Fused filament fabrication (FFF)Customized LulzBotSensing elementCapacitive[181]
2019Aerosol jet printingSelf-built printer~10 μmSensing elementPiezoresistive[238]
2019Direct ink writingSelf-built printerSensing elementPiezoresistive[239]

2018Fused filament fabrication (FFF)Standard FFF printerSensor body, sensing elementPiezoresistive[130]
2018Inkjet printingEnjet Corp., Korea60 μmSensor electrodePiezoresistive[240]
2018Inkjet printingCanon IP100Sensing elementCapacitive[213]
2018Direct ink writingSelf-built printer60 μmSensing elementPiezoresistive[149]
2018Direct ink writingGlass micropipetteSensor electrodesCapacitive[82]
2018Direct ink writingHome-built 3D printer, Cura Ultimaker400 μmSensing elementCapacitive[191]
2018Direct ink writingCustom-built printerWhole sensorPiezoresistive[212]
2018Direct ink writingSelf-built printer300 μmSensing elementPiezoresistive[241]
2018Direct ink writingHome-built 3D printer400 μmSensing elementCapacitive[242]

2017Fused filament fabrication (FFF)MakerBot 2X replicator100-300 μmSensor body, sensing elementPiezoresistive[243]
2017Fused filament fabrication (FFF)MakerGear M250 μm–0.25 mmSensing elementPiezoresistive[244]
2017Inkjet printingProJet 5500X~30 μmSensor bodyPiezoresistive[9]
2017Inkjet printingSensor electrodePiezoresistive[245]
2017Inkjet printingMicroFab jetlab IIDielectric layerCapacitive[198]
2017Inkjet printingjetlab4, MicroFab170 nmSensor elementPiezoelectric[246]
2017Direct ink writingCustom-built 3D printerSensor body, sensing elementPiezoresistive[231]
2017Direct ink writingSelf-builtSensing elementPiezoresistive[247]
2017Direct ink writingSelf-built printerTrace width—100 μmSensing element and electrodesCapacitive[109]
2017Electrohydrodynamic (EHD)Self-built printer15 μmSensing elementCapacitive[235]