Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

A Review of Printable Flexible and Stretchable Tactile Sensors

Table 3

3D printing of tactile sensors with their fabricated materials and sensor features.

YearTransduction principleFeatureMeasured constrainActive materialSubstrate materialElectrode/interconnects materialSensitivityGauge factorMeasured rangeCyclic stabilityRef.

2019PiezoresistiveFlexibleStrainTPU/graphene80Up to 200%6000 strain cycles[236]
2019PiezoresistiveBidirectionalStrainTPU/MWCNTTPU1.5-3Up to 50%20 cycles[237]
2019PiezoresistiveStretchableStrainAgNP/MWCNTEcoflex 0030Ag conductive paste58.7Max strain limit 74%1000 strain cycles[238]
2019PiezoresistiveFast response 171 ms, thickness 650 μmPressureGraphene nanoplatelets/MWCNT/polyethylene oxide (PEO)PDMSAg conductive paste6.56 MPa-1 for <65 kPa
0.335 kPa-1 for 100 kPa
14–105 kPa1000 pressure cycles[239]
2019CapacitiveBimodal sensorBending strain, pressureAg conductive inkPolyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), paper35000.41–1.10% strain4500 bending cycles[35]
2019CapacitiveStretchableStrainCarbon black/EcoflexBarium titanate/Ecoflex1.7 and 0.31000 stretching cycles[181]

2018PiezoresistiveHigh sensitivityBending strain, pressurePolylactic acid-graphene (PLA-G) filamentThermoplastic polyurethane filament (TPU)~550292 Pa–487 kPa
0.1–26.3 degrees
[130]
2018PiezoresistivePressurePVDF-HFP/PEDOT:PSSPETPEDOT:PSS13.5/kPa10000 strain cycles[240]
2018PiezoresistiveMeniscus-guided printing mechanismStrainMWCNT/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)Polyimide (PI), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)Ag paste, copper wire13.07 and 12.87~1500 bending cycles[149]
2018PiezoresistiveStretchablePressureThermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/carbon black/NaClPDMSAg microflake/TPU composite5.54 kPa−1, 0.123 kPa−1, 0.0048 kPa−110 Pa to 800 kPa10000 pressure cycles[212]
2018PiezoresistiveFlexiblePressureMWCNT/TangoPlusTangoPlus∼0.5 N0–50 N[241]
2018CapacitiveTactile perceptionForceAg nanoparticle inkPET[213]
2018CapacitiveStretchablePressureEcoflexPDMSAgNW ink10.6%/kPa100 Pa–6 kPa2000 stretching cycles[82]
2018CapacitiveStretchableStrainCNT/PDMSPDMSAgNW solution0.95–0.77[191]
2018CapacitiveStretchablePressureCNT/PDMSPDMS547.9 kPa−10–110 Pa500 pressure cycles[242]
2018TriboelectricFlexibleCompressive loadAcrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)Ionic hydrogel, copper wire3000 working cycle[202]

2017PiezoresistiveBendableStrainAg nanoparticle inkVisiJet composite photopolymer500-10% strain[9]
2017PiezoresistiveFlexible multiaxial force detectionForceCNT/thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposite filamentThermoplastic polyurethane filament (TPU)Ag paste0-5 N1000 bending cycles[243]
2017PiezoresistiveFlexible bimodalPressurePEDOT:PSS/polyurethane dispersion (PUD)PDMSAg nanoparticle3 Pa3 Pa to 5 kPa100000 pressure cycles[245]
2017PiezoresistiveStretchablePressureAg/siliconeSilicone ink, Dragon Skin 10Ag/silicone~180100 pressing cycles[231]
2017PiezoresistiveStretchableStrainNH2-MWCNT/GO/SISPolystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene (SIS)Cu wires, Ag epoxy>70[247]
2017PiezoresistiveStretchableStrainAg nanoparticlesPoly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) SBS300 stretching cycles[248]
2017CapacitiveHybrid 3D printingStrain, pressureAg flakesPure TPUAg flakes in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ink≈13.30–3 MPa1000[109]
2017CapacitiveFlexibleTouch forceAg nanoparticle inkGlass, PET film[235]
2017CapacitiveVery high sensitivityPressuren-Butyl acetate diluted PDMSITO-coated glass10.4 kPa-10-70 Pa[198]
2017PiezoelectricEnergy generationPressureP(VDF–TrFE)Polyethylene NaphthalateSilver nanoparticle[246]