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Research Article

Toward Green Production of Chewing Gum and Diet: Complete Hydrogenation of Xylose to Xylitol over Ruthenium Composite Catalysts under Mild Conditions

Table 1

Hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol by Ru@ZIF-67 compositesa.

EntryCatalyst (mg)Ru (mmol)bSolvent%conv.%sel.
XyloseXylitolFurfural

11a (100)0.092Methanol/water (2 : 1)10088.611.4
21b (100)0.118Methanol/water (2 : 1)10093.66.40
31c (100)0.155Methanol/water (2 : 1)10091.58.50
41b (70)0.083Methanol/water (2 : 1)10071.528.5
51b (50)0.059Methanol/water (2 : 1)10060.839.2
61b (100)0.118Methanol/water (1 : 1)1001000
71b (100)0.118Methanol10088.311.7
8c1b (100)0.118Methanol/water (1 : 1)92.289.910.1
9d1b (100)0.118Methanol/water (1 : 1)10093.07.00
10e1b (100)0.118Methanol/water (1 : 1)7065.734.3
11ZIF-67 (100)0Methanol/water (1 : 1)15.40100

aReaction conditions: xylose (150 mg), H2 (1.0 atm), solvent (5 mL), 50°C, and 48 h. bAnalytical results of ICP. c24 h. d30 h. e25°C.