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Research Article

Ultrafast Synthesis of Calcium Vanadate for Superior Aqueous Calcium-Ion Battery

Figure 5

Reaction kinetic analysis of CaV6O16·7H2O (CVO). (a) Cyclic voltammetry curves at various scan rates from 0.05 to 5 mV s-1 in 4.5 M Ca(NO3)2 at pH 10 electrolyte. (b) The b-coefficient calculated from the peak current and scan rate. (c) Separation of the surface (nondiffusion-limited) and bulk (diffusion-limited) processes of charge storage at 0.2 mV s-1. (d) Surface and bulk current contributions to the total charge versus the scan rates from 0.05 to 5 mVs-1.

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