Average of bioenergy (mean ± SE) exerted by applying TMS over the dominant brain motor cortex while the participants had the FDI muscle at rest (R) and during voluntary contraction (C). The bioenergy is greater in females than males at all stimulation intensities at rest (R), and during muscle contraction (C) at MT (see text and Supplementary material Table 1
). X-axis: left, middle, and right error bars represent the TMS applied at MT, MT+10, and MT+20. Males: broken line; females: dotted line; all participants: continues line. The bioenergy is expressed in microWalls.