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Review Article

Piezoelectric Peptide and Metabolite Materials

Table 1

Summary of some peptides and metabolite materials.

MaterialsCrystal structuresProperties of interestsRef.

FF microrodsHexagonal (P61)Piezoelectricity ()[53]
Fmoc-FFPiezoelectricity ()[56]
cyclo-GWMonoclinic (P21)Piezoelectricity ()[54]
cyclo-FW crystalsOrthorhombic (P212121)Piezoelectricity[98]
β-GlycineMonoclinic (P21)Piezoelectricity ()[52]
γ-GlycineTrigonal (P32)Piezoelectricity ()[52]
cyclo-FFOrthorhombic (P21212)Ferroelectricity[73]
cyclo-FFOrthorhombic (P21212)Conductivity ()[104]
cyclo-FWOrthorhombic (P212121)Conductivity ()[105]
FF nanotubesHexagonal (P61)Optical properties (ultraviolet and blue emission)[116]
cyclo-FFOrthorhombic (P21212)Optical properties (blue emission)[101]
cyclo-GWMonoclinic (P21)Optical properties (blue fluorescence)[54]
cyclo-FWOrthorhombic (P212121)Optical waveguiding properties[98]
γ-Glycine crystalsTrigonal (P31)Thermally stable up to 170°C[87]
FF nanotubesHexagonal (P61)Thermally stable up to 150°C[67]
cyclo-GWMonoclinic (P21)Thermally stable up to 370°C[54]
cyclo-FWOrthorhombic (P212121)Thermally stable up to 370°C[98]
FF nanotubesHexagonal (P61)Young’s modulus: 27 GPa[127]
γ-GlycineYoung’s modulus along the (100) plane: 28 GPa[129]