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Research Article

Large-Scale Synthesis of the Stable Co-Free Layered Oxide Cathode by the Synergetic Contribution of Multielement Chemical Substitution for Practical Sodium-Ion Battery

Figure 5

Electrochemical performance of full-cell system. (a) Galvanostatic charge/discharge curves versus specific capacity at 0.2C in the voltage range of 1.9-3.9 V. (b, c) Rate performance at various rates and corresponding galvanostatic charge/discharge curves versus specific capacity. (d) Energy efficiency and midpoint voltage at various rates in the voltage range of 1.9-3.9 V. (e) Galvanostatic charge/discharge curves versus specific capacity in different 20th, 50th, 80th, 100th, 200th, and 300th cycles at 1C. (f) The comparison of the comprehensive performance of the NaNi0.4Cu0.05Mg0.05Mn0.4Ti0.1O2 (red line) and NaNi0.5Mn0.5O2 (blue line) cathode materials. (g) Cycling performance during 300 cycles at 1C.
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