Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Strategies of Pathogen-Oriented Therapy on Circumventing Antimicrobial Resistance

Table 1

Examples of AACs.

Antibiotic conjugatesEvaluated conditionProposed mechanism of actionReference

Quinolone/fluoroquinoloneQuinolone-oxazolidinone (MCB3681)Gram-positive bacterial infectionsInhibit the initiation of bacterial protein biosynthesis[26, 27]
Quinolizine-rifamycin (cadazolid)C. difficile infectionsInhibit protein and RNA synthesis[2830]
Fluoroquinolone-oxazolidinone (CBR-2092)Gram-positive bacterial infectionsInhibit the bacterial DNA replication and DNA-dependent RNA synthesis[31, 32]

AminoglycosideNeomycin B-ciprofloxacinGram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive MRSA infectionsInhibit the activity of DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and protein synthesis[33]
Tobramycin-moxifloxacinPseudomonas aeruginosa infectionsEnhance the permeability of antibiotics to the outer membrane of pathogenic bacteria[34, 35]
Neomycin-sisomicinAminoglycoside-resistant bacteria infectionsInhibit protein synthesis by binding to 16S rRNA[36, 37]

β-Lactamase inhibitorCeftazidime-avibactamComplicated urinary tract infectionsInterfere with bacterial cell wall and peptidoglycan synthesis[22, 38]
Meropenem-vaborbactamComplicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritisVaborbactam potentiates the activity of meropenem, inhibiting the cell wall synthesis and peptidoglycan synthesis[20, 39, 40]
Imipenem-relebactamGram-negative bacterial infectionsRelebactam prevents the hydrolysis of imipenem, exerting imipenem’s bactericidal effect[41, 42]

MacrolideAzithromycin-sulfonamideMacrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae strainsInhibit mRNA translation and bacterial metabolic processes[43, 44]