Research / 2020 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

All-in-One Deposition to Synergistically Manipulate Perovskite Growth for High-Performance Solar Cell

Figure 1

Interaction between the additives and the perovskite precursors. (a) Chemical structures of the additives urea, biuret, and triuret. (b) 1H NMR spectra of MAI, MAI+PbI2, MAI+PbI2+biuret, MAI+biuret, PbI2+biuret, and biuret. (c) Schematic illustration of the MAPbI3 perovskite crystal growth with the assistance of biuret additive, (I) mixing biuret into the perovskite precursor, (II) association between the precursor and additives and the formation of PbI2-biuret-MAI complex, (III) nucleation with additives attached on the nucleus, attracting free monomers (MAI, PbI2) for fast crystal growth, and (IV) large perovskite formation with residual additives at the grain boundaries.