The characterization of LMGNSs. (a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication process of leukocyte membrane-coated gallium nanoswimmers (LMGNSs). (b) SEM image of GNSs. Scale bar, 2 μm. (c) TEM images of GNS, scale bar 2 μm, the inset is an enlarged TEM image of the red region showing a core-shell structure, scale bar 10 nm. (d) The infrared spectra of GNSs before and after modification. (e) The O 1s XPS spectrum of the GNSs. (f) The CLSM images of the LMGNS, scale bars 2 μm. (g) Zeta potential of GNSs, LMGNSs, and cell membrane vesicles (CM). (h) The UV-vis spectra of the LMGNSs before and after loading Dox. (i) The Dox release plots of the GNSs and LMGNSs in different pH conditions. The microscopic images of the Dox-loaded LMGNSs after incubation in pH 7.4 (j) and 5.0 (k) solution for 6 h, respectively, scale bars 10 μm.