Applications of optically patterned 2D materials. (a) I-V characteristics of photodetectors based on pristine and laser-thinned multilayer MoS2 under dark and illumination conditions. Reproduced from Ref.  with permission from the American Chemical Society, copyright 2014. (b) Field-effect transistors based on undoped and phosphorus-doped WSe2. In the left image, the blue dashed box outlines the bilayer WSe2 flake and the red dashed circle denotes the laser-irradiated area that exhibits the doping effect. Reproduced from Ref.  with permission from Wiley, copyright 2015. (c) Schematic and photoresponse of graphene-based - junction fabricated by laser-controlled oxidation. Reproduced from Ref.  with permission from the American Chemical Society, copyright 2014. (d) Left: schematic of a 2D transistor with laser-induced heterophase homojunction of 2H and 1T phases in MoTe2. Right: measured carrier field-effect mobility in the devices with 1T-MoTe2/metal contact and conventional 2H-MoTe2/metal contact, respectively, as a function of temperature. Reproduced from Ref.  with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, copyright 2015. (e) Schematic of oriented neural network evolution on optically patterned single-layer graphene (SLG) on a glass substrate coated with poly-D-lysine (PDL). DIV 7: 7 days in vitro. Reproduced from Ref.  with permission from the Nature Publishing Group, copyright 2013.