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Review Article

Enhanced Light-Harvesting Efficiency and Adaptation: A Review on Visible-Light-Driven Micro/Nanomotors

Table 1

Representative VLD-MNMs and their corresponding shapes, propulsion mechanisms, and speeds.

MaterialsShapePropulsion mechanismMotion velocity (μm s-1)Light

Au/B-TiO2 [51]Janus sphereSelf-electrophoresis30.1UV-Vis
Au/TiO2 [52]NanocapSelf-electrophoresisVis
n+-Si/p-Si [53]Core-shell nanowireSelf-electrophoresis9.6Vis-NIR
Au/Fe2O3 [39]NanorodSelf-electrophoresis30Vis
TiO2/Si [40]NanotreeSelf-electrophoresis5UV-Vis
TiO2/Pt/Pd [54]TubularSelf-electrophoresisUV-Vis
ZnxCd1-xSe/Cu2Se/Pt [55]Core-shell nanowireSelf-electrophoresis12Vis
Au/Cu2O [38]Janus sphereSelf-electrophoresis6Vis
Si/Au [37]NanotadpoleSelf-electrophoresis5Vis
Au/BiOI [29]Janus sphereSelf-electrophoresis1.62Vis
Sb2Se3/ZnO [56]Core-shell nanowireSelf-electrophoresis15Polar
Pt/Ag [57]NanorodSelf-electrophoresis9.21UV-Vis
Cu2O/N-carbon [58]SphereSelf-diffusiophoresis18.71Vis
Pt/g-C3N4 [59]SphereSelf-diffusiophoresis14UV-Vis
Hematite colloid [60]PeanutSelf-diffusiophoresis1.84Vis
Cu2O/TiO2/SiO2 [61]ChevronSelf-diffusiophoresis15UV-Vis
Cu/TiO2 [62]Janus sphereSelf-diffusiophoresis43UV-Vis
PMMA/AgCl [63]Janus sphereSelf-diffusiophoresis12UV-Vis
Ag/AgCl [64]Janus sphereSelf-diffusiophoresis70Vis
TiO2-Mo7-Au [65]SphereSelf-diffusiophoresis10.22Vis
FePc [66]SphereSelf-diffusiophoresis32Vis
BiVO4 [43]MicrostarSelf-diffusiophoresis5Vis
Cu2+1O [36]SphereSelf-diffusiophoresis107.32Vis
CdS/C60/Pd (Pt, MnO2) [67]TubularBubble propulsion1058UV-Vis
PDA/Pt/TiO2/Au [68]Core-shell sphereBubble propulsion130Solar
ZnO/ZnO2/Pt [69]Janus sphereBubble propulsion350UV-Vis
Spiropyrans/Cu/Pt [44]TubularBubble propulsion57UV-Vis
Ti/Cr/Pt [70]TubularBubble propulsion65Vis
Azobenzene-coated [30]SphereInterfacial tension gradient16.9UV-Vis
Alkenes [46]Molecular rotary motorPhotochemical reactionUV-Vis
Rotaxane [47]Molecular shuttlePhotochemical reactionUV-Vis
[2]Rotaxane [50]Molecular switchPhotochemical reactionUV-Vis

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