Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Combating the Coronavirus Pandemic: Early Detection, Medical Treatment, and a Concerted Effort by the Global Community

Table 1

Detection methods of 2019-nCoV classified by protein and gene targets.

MethodSampling methodsDetection timeAccuracy/limit of detectionAdvantagesRemarks and Ref.
RapidLow costSensitivePortableVisual analysis

Antibody
 IgG/IgM-LFABlood15 min92.69%Inapplicable to early-stage detection [243]
 IgG/IgM-AIE-QDBlood15 min75%Inapplicable to early-stage detection [244]
 IgM-colloidal gold-LFABlood15 minNot reportedInapplicable to early-stage detection [245]
 IgG/IgM-ELISA or LFABlood29 min93.1%Inapplicable to early-stage detection [246]
 IgG/IgM-colloidal gold-FLABlood15-30 min90%Inapplicable to early-stage detection&
Nucleic acid (whole genome)
 Nanopore target sequencingThroat swab6-10 h>95%, 10 copies/mLMonitor mutation but time-consuming and costly [28]
Nucleic acid (N and E genes or ORF1ab/RdRp/S)
 Real-time RT-PCRNasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab240-360 min67%, 3.2 copies/μLN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AEstablished standard method but time-consuming and requiring skilled personnel&
 RT-LAMPNasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab30 min>95%A single, simple protocol but with noisy signals&
 Close-tube Penn-RAMP (LAMP+RPA)Synthetic RNA100 min7 copies per reactionSuitable for home screening but requiring clinical validation [45]
 CepatNasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab5-10 min99%High specificity but requiring clinical validation [247]
 CRISPR-Cas12a/RT-LAMP (DETECTR)Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab45 min10 copies/μL inputRequiring clinical validation [248]
 HTX COVID-19 test kitNasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab180 min99%Severity evaluation possible but requiring clinical validation [249]
 enVisionSynthetic RNA30 minNot knownRequiring clinical validation [76]
 CRISPR-Cas13a/RPA-LFA (SHERLOCK)Synthetic RNA<60 min10 copies/μL inputSimple but requiring clinical validation [60]
 CRISPR-Cas12a/RT-RPA (DETECTR)Synthetic RNA<60 min10 copies/μL inputRequiring clinical validation [62]
 Multiparameter-chip/RPASynthetic RNA<60 min>90%Requiring clinical validation [250]

N/A: not available (an established method used for comparison in this table); &: commercial kits; LAMP: loop-mediated isothermal amplification; RPA: recombinase polymerase amplification; FLA: lateral flow assay; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; DETECTR: DNA endonuclease-targeted CRISPR trans reporter.