Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Combating the Coronavirus Pandemic: Early Detection, Medical Treatment, and a Concerted Effort by the Global Community

Table 2

Potential antiviral drugs for COVID-19.

Potential therapeutic agentsTarget of inhibitionIndication/purposesPreliminary studiesApplication for COVID-19
Case studiesRemarks

UmifenovirEntry receptorAntiviral drug on influenza; not yet tested for coronavirusesN/ACompared with favipiravir (see favipiravir)Currently being evaluated in China
Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquineEntry receptorAntiviral drug on malaria; not yet tested for coronavirusesIn vitro antiviral activities against 2019-nCoV on primate cells [135, 138]OngoingCurrently being evaluated in China and the United States
Camostat mesylateHost proteaseAntiviral drug on pancreatic diseases; not yet tested for coronavirusesIn vitro antiviral activities against 2019-nCoV in human lung cancer cells [113]Not knownNone
Lopinavir-ritonavirViral proteaseUsed in combination with ribavirin for SARS and MERSN/A199 hospitalized patients, Wuhan, China (99 lopinavir+ritonavir+100 standard care) [161]Currently being evaluated in China and the United States. However, found to be ineffective based on preliminary findings
DarunavirViral proteaseAntiretroviral drug; not yet tested for coronavirusesN/ANot knownNone
RibavirinGenome replicationUsed in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir for SARS and MERSN/ANot knownCurrently being evaluated in China
FavipiravirGenome replicationAntiviral drug on influenza; not yet tested for coronavirusesN/A240 patients in Hubei province, China (120 favipiravir+120 arbidol) (preprint) [184]Higher recovery rate compared to those treated with umifenovir (arbidol)
RemdesivirGenome replicationThe new antiviral drug initially developed for EbolaIn vitro antiviral activities toward 2019-nCoV on primate cells [138]OngoingUnder clinical trials
CarolactonGenome replicationPotential antibacterial compound against biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae [192, 193]In vitro antiviral activities against bat kidney cells [190]Not knownNone
IvermectinGenome replicationAntiparasitic drug (broad-spectrum).In vitro antiviral activities against 2019-nCoV on primate cells [197]Not knownNone

N/A: not available. Note: “coronaviruses” only target SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.