Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 5

Review Article

Combating the Coronavirus Pandemic: Early Detection, Medical Treatment, and a Concerted Effort by the Global Community

Table 5

Summary of main therapeutic approaches proposed for COVID-19.

Drug namesOriginal indicationMechanism of actionClinical statusReferences

Chemical drugs
 UmifenovirInfluenza A & BInhibition of binding of the virus to host cell membranePhase 4 trials for COVID-19[122124]
 Chloroquine and derivativesMalariaInhibition of lysosomal activity and signaling pathway in virusPhase 2-3 trials for prophylaxis of COVID-19
Phase 2-4 trials for the treatment of COVID-19
[130140]
 LopinavirHIVProposed inhibition of 3CLproPhase 2-4 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[159, 160]
 RitonavirHIVProposed inhibition of 3CLproPhase 2-4 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[159, 160]
 DarunavirHIVInhibition of viral maturation pathwaysPhase 2-3 trials for the treatment of pneumonia caused by COVID-19[164]
 Camostat mesylatePancreatic inflammationInhibition of viral entry into host cellsPreclinical[113, 151, 152]
 RemdesivirEbola (proposed)Inhibits viral RNA polymerasePhase 3 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[186, 188]
 FavipiravirInfluenzaInhibits RdRpPhase 3 and randomized trials for the treatment of COVID-19[138, 179182]
 RibavirinHCV, RSVInhibition of viral RNA replication & increased mutation in viral RNAPhase 2 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[168172]
Biologics
 INF-αHCV, HCL, melanomaInvoking interferon response through exogenous interferonsMultiple randomized trials for COVID-19 patients[208, 209]
 Convalescent plasmaInfluenza, Ebola, SARS, MERSSuppression of viremiaMultiple randomized trials for COVID-19[212, 213]
 Human monoclonal antibodiesNilBinding to the receptor-binding domain of COVID-2019Preclinical[214]
 mRNA-1273, Ad5-nCoVNilEliciting immune response via host cell-expressed viral proteinPhase 1 clinical trials for prevention of COVID-19 infection[237, 238]
 B & T cell epitopesSARS-CoVInvoke immune targeting of these epitopesPreclinical[251]
 MSCHeart disease, Parkinson’s disease, lung cancer, type 1 diabetes, strokePromotes endothelial repair and reduce inflammation through secretion of soluble paracrine factorsPhase 0-1 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[235, 236]
TCM/herbal remedies
 Lian Hua Qing Wen CapsuleInfluenzaDownregulates MCP-1 which decreases monocytes chemotaxis to infection fociPhase 4 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[25, 252]
 Xue Bi Jing InjectionInflammationInhibition of proinflammatory Th17 cells and reduced inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6Phase 0-4 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[25, 232, 253]
 Re Du Ning InjectionURTISuppressing secretion of inflammatory mediatorsPhase 0 trial for the treatment of COVID-19[25, 254]
 Xi Yan Ping InjectionHFMD, URTIInhibition of NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responsesPhase 0 trial for the treatment of COVID-19[25, 255]
 Tan Re Qing Injection/CapsuleURTI, COPDInhibition of NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responsesPhase 0-4 trials for the treatment of COVID-19[25, 256]
 Shen Fu InjectionCongestive heart failure, ischemic strokeAffect various immune signaling pathways to have a protective effect against organ damagePhase 4 trial for the treatment of COVID-19[25, 257]

Abbreviations: 3CLpro: 3C-like protease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HCL: hairy cell leukemia; HCV: hepatitis C virus; HFMD: hand, foot, and mouth disease; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; IL-6: interleukin 6; INF-α: interferon-alpha; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MERS-CoV: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus; MSC: mesenchymal stem cell; NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; RdRp: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; RNA: ribonucleic acid; RSV: respiratory syncytial virus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus; Th17: T helper 17; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; URTI: upper respiratory tract infection.