Electrochemical performance characterizations. (a) Oxygen evolution results and catalytic activities for LNO, Fe-LNO, Fe-NiOOH, and LNFO, activities measured in 1 M KOH at 10 mV s-1 and the chronopotentiometry of LNO and Fe-LNO measured at 10 mA cm-2. (b) The GEO, ECSA, and BET normalized overpotentials of various catalysts. (c) Tafel plots of the specific activity of each catalyst. (d) The Tafel slope, overpotential with geometry, and TOF of catalysts.