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Review Article

Smart Microneedles for Therapy and Diagnosis

Table 3

Biomarkers detected by microneedles.

BiomarkerExampleMicroneedle typeRef.

Small moleculeGlucose, cholesterol, organophosphate, chloride, lactate, antibiotic, H2O2Absorbing microneedles, all-in-one microneedles[61, 69, 71, 72]
DNAPathogen DNAAbsorbing microneedles, all-in-one microneedles[55]
RNAmiRNAAbsorbing microneedles, all-in-one microneedles[23]
ProteinTNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IgG, virus protein, tyrosinaseAbsorbing microneedles, all-in-one microneedles[70, 73, 74]
CellImmune cellsAbsorbing microneedles[3]

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