Research / 2020 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Requirement and Development of Hydrogel Micromotors towards Biomedical Applications

Figure 2

Strategies developed by versatile autonomous and externally powered/controlled micromotors to satisfy requirements for bioapplications. (a) “Preloaded fuel”: reproduced with permission from ref. [54], AAAS 2015. (b) “Fuel-free”: reproduced with permission from ref. [57], American Chemical Society 2017. (c) “Biocompatible fuel”: reproduced with permission from ref. [67], American Chemical Society 2016. (d) “Speed control”: reproduced with permission from ref. [69], The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009. (e) “Direction control”: reproduced with permission from ref. [70], American Chemical Society 2012. (f) “Biocompatibility”: reproduced with permission from ref. [16], Springer 2017. (g) “Biodegradability”: reproduced with permission from ref. [75], American Chemical Society 2015. (h) “Functionalization”: reproduced with permission from ref. [76], Wiley-VCH 2014. Left-side schematics of different architectures of micromotors (from top to bottom): self-propelled supramolecular motor with temperature-responsive velocity regulation, reproduced with permission from ref. [65], Springer 2017; flexible thermoresponsive self-folding polymeric-Pt tubular micromotor, reproduced with permission from ref. [80], Wiley-VCH 2014; Mg/Pt-PNIPAM Janus micromotor applied for temperature-controlled release of drugs using a surface-attached thermoresponsive PNIPAM hydrogel, reproduced with permission from ref. [14], American Chemical Society 2014. Thermoresponsive therapeutic theragrippers consist of rigid PPF segments and stimuli-responsive PNIPAM-AAc hinges, reproduced with permission from ref. [81], Wiley-VCH 2014. A fish-like enzymeless micromotor composed of a phenylboronic acid modified PNIPAM hydrogel and a SDS surfactant, reproduced with permission from ref. [82], The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017. The microcapsule-based micromotor with a catalytic liquid core and a hydrogel shell is reproduced with permission from ref. [43], IOP 2019.