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Review Article

Structure Engineering in Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

Table 1

Comparison of the pseudographitic structure and hierarchical pore structures of B-d-CMs and their electrochemical performance in various EES devices.

Biomass materials (nm)IG/ID () ()Hierarchical porous structureEnergy applicationsCapacity (current density)Capacity (high current density)Ref.

Banana peel0.390.921300.19NoSIBs355 mAh g-1 (50 mA g-1)238 mAh g-1 (0.5 a g-1)[28]
Shaddock peel0.380.57538NoSIBs287.3 mAh g-1 (50 mA g-1)205.6 mAh g-1 (0.5 a g-1)[104]
Pith/chitosan0.571.0017860.82NoSupercapacitors339 F g-1 (0.25 a g-1)280 F g-1 (100 a g-1)[101]
Cornstalk0.341.407880.63NoSupercapacitors213 F g-1 (1 A g-1)[102]
Peanut skin0.3725001.69YesSIBs431 mAh g-1 (0.1 a g-1)47 mAh g-1 (10 a g-1)[29]
Prawn shell336YesSIBs325 mAh g-1 (0.1 a g-1)107 mAh g-1 (2 a g-1)[44]
Natural silk1.1524942.28YesSupercapacitors242 F g-1 (0.1 A g-1)155 F g-1 (10 A g-1)[113]
Cotton stalk14811.21YesSupercapacitors114 F g-1 (0.5 a g-1)98 F g-1 (2 a g-1)[114]
Rice husks5250.49YesLi-S batteries1023 mAh g-1 (1.0 C)500 mAh g-1 (5.0 C)[80]
Soybean15000.70YesLi-S batteries950 mAh g-1 (0.2 C)460 mAh g-1 (0.5 C)[115]