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Review Article

Structure Engineering in Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

Table 2

Comparison of surface functional groups and heteroatom doping of B-d-CMs and their electrochemical performance in various EES devices.

Biomass materialsFunctional groups/heteroatom dopingEnergy applicationsCapacity (low current density)Capacity (high current density)Ref.

Cherry petalsO (12.0 at%)
N (1.4 at%)
SIBs310.2 mAh g-1 (20 mA g-1)146.5 mAh g-1 (0.5 a g-1)[118]
Longan shellO (6.27 wt%)
N (1.36 wt%)
SIBs345.9 mAh g-1 (0.1 a g-1)304.2 mAh g-1 (5 A g-1)[119]
Ox hornO (6.90 at%)
N (5.50 at%)
SIBs419 mAh g-1 (0.1 a g-1)117 mAh g-1 (5 a g-1)[122]
EnteromorphaO (11.36 at%)
N (0.74 at%)
Supercapacitors201 F g-1 (1 a g-1)122.6 F g-1 (100 A g-1)[120]
KelpO (8.76 at%)
N (5.04 at%)
Supercapacitors440 F g-1 (0.5 a g-1)180 F g-1 (150 a g-1)[123]
Willow catkinsO (13.28 wt%)
N (2.51 wt%)
Supercapacitors340 F g-1 (0.1 a g-1)231 F g-1 (10 a g-1)[126]
GelatinN (9.74 at%)Li-S batteries1209 mAh g-1 (1 C)595 mAh g-1 (3 C)[124]
Shrimp skinN (7.26 at%)SIBs434.6 mAh g-1 (30 mA g-1)110 mAh g-1 (2 a g-1)[131]
Pomelo PeelN (3.90 at%)Supercapacitors260 F g-1 (1 a g-1)44 F g-1 (10 a g-1)[129]
CottonS (10.2 wt%)SIBs532 mAh g-1 (200 mA g-1)234 mAh g-1 (2 a g-1)[137]
Ginkgo leavesS (8.25 wt%)Supercapacitors364 F g-1 (0.5 a g-1)245 F g-1 (40 a g-1)[91]
Luffa spongeS (2.72 at%)Li-S batteries1544 mAh g-1 (0.2 C)781.2 mAh g-1 (5 C)[90]
Poplar woodB (3.70 at%)Supercapacitors372 F g-1 (2 a g-1)251 F g-1 (10 a g-1)[87]
Coffee beanP (13.3 at%)Supercapacitors180 F g-1 (0.05 a g-1)157 F g-1 (1 a g-1)[141]
Lotus petiolesF (1.1 at%)SIBs230 mAh g-1 (50 mA g-1)228 mAh g-1 (200 mA g-1)[95]
CelluloseN (2.4 at%)
S (3.2 at%)
Li-S batteries1370 mAh g-1 (C/20)830 mAh g-1 (2 C)[145]
Dandelion fluffN (2.2 at%)
B (4.6 at%)
Supercapacitors355 F g-1 (1 a g-1)292 F g-1 (20 a g-1)[149]
Corn stalksN (0.90 at%)
P (1.82 at%)
SIBs233 mAh g-1 (0.1 a g-1)143 mAh g-1 (1 A g-1)[153]