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Review Article

Nanogenerator-Based Self-Powered Sensors for Wearable and Implantable Electronics

Table 1

The characteristics of wearable and implantable PENGs.

Type featureMaterialSize (cm)Output voltage ()Function

PENGInorganicPZT [45, 57]
ZnO [56, 68, 70]
PMN-PZT-Mn [45]
Se [61]
Te [62]
BaTiO3 [59]
MoS2 [60]
[45]
[56]
[58]
[61]
[62]
[70]
0.0235 [56], 0.3-1.85 [57], 17.8 [58], 105 [59], 18 [60], 0.45 [61], 0.1 [68], 0.05 [70]Power source [57, 58]
Sensor [45, 56, 5962, 68, 70]
OrganicHS-FPCS [47]
PVDF [49, 63, 64, 66, 71]
Chitin [51]
PTFE-FEP [68]
P(VDF-TrFE) [67, 69]
[49]
[51]
[71]
[63]
1 [66]
[67]
[68]
[69]
130 [47], 1 [51], 1.75 [63], -0.016-0.014 [66], 4.8 [67]Power source [49, 63, 71]
Sensor [47, 51, 64, 6669]